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Joel Allen Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-102410).


Allen, Joel Asaph (19 July 1838–29 August 1921), zoologist and museum official, was born near Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of Joel Allen, a carpenter, housebuilder, and later a farmer, and Harriet Trumbull, a former schoolteacher. Allen attended the local public schools in the wintertime, but his father, a rigidly puritanical Congregationalist, insisted that he work on the family farm during good weather. From the age of about fourteen, as Allen’s interest in natural history, particularly birds, increased, his interest in farming diminished. He nevertheless worked long hours for his father in a spirit of filial loyalty, possibly laying the foundation for the serious bouts of ill health that would plague him in later years. Whenever possible, he prepared study specimens of birds and animals for his own private collection. From 1858 to 1862 Allen’s father supported his intermittent attendance at nearby Wilbraham Academy....


Goode, George Brown (13 February 1851–06 September 1896), zoologist, museum administrator, and historian of science, was born in New Albany, Indiana, the son of Francis Collier Goode, a merchant, and Sarah Woodruff Crane. Goode’s mother died just eighteen months after his birth, and he was raised by his father and stepmother, Sally Ann Jackson. In 1857 his father retired to Amenia, about 100 miles north of New York City. Family study and private tutors prepared Goode for entrance into Wesleyan College in Middletown, Connecticut, from which he graduated with an A.B. in 1870. He attended the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University and apparently spent some time in ...


True, Frederick William (08 July 1858–25 June 1914), zoologist and museum administrator, was born in Middletown, Connecticut, the son of Charles Kittredge True, Methodist minister, and Elizabeth Bassett Hyde. True was educated at the University of the City of New York, graduating in 1878 with a bachelor of science degree. On graduation he accepted a position as clerk in the U.S. Fish Commission (1878–1881); in 1879 he served as an expert special agent for fisheries in the Tenth U.S. Census. The following year he was in charge of the exhibit of the U.S. Fish Commission at the Berlin Fisheries Exhibition....