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Bogardus, James (14 March 1800–13 April 1874), inventor and builder, was born near Catskill, New York, the son of John Bogardus and Sara Stockens, farmers. Apprenticed when he was fourteen years old to the local watchmaker, he became skilled in work with precision instruments, die sinking, and engraving. In 1820, “desiring to see something of the world,” he went to Savannah, Georgia, where he worked at engraving. By 1823 he was back in Catskill, with his own clock and engraving business. He emerged as an inventor in 1828, exhibiting a new type of three-wheeled, eight-day clock that won the highest premium at the first fair (1828) of the American Institute of New York....