- J. W. Kling
Carmichael, Leonard (09 November 1898–16 September 1973), experimental psychologist and institutional administrator, was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a physician, and Emily Leonard, a teacher and administrator. He entered Tufts College in 1917, volunteered as a private in the U.S. Army in 1918, and received his B.S. in biology summa cum laude in 1921. His Ph.D. in psychology was awarded by Harvard University in 1924, and he joined the Princeton University psychology department that same year. While still in graduate school, he was identified as an especially promising scholar, and he rose rapidly through the academic ranks. In 1927 he moved to Brown University as director of the Psychological Laboratory and was promoted to professor the following year....