Manning, Joseph Columbus
- Paul M. Pruitt
Manning, Joseph Columbus (21 May 1870–19 May 1930), reformer and politician, was born in the hill country town of Lineville, Clay County, Alabama, the son of Henry Allen Manning, a merchant and Methodist minister, and Martha Burrough. A bright, devout boy, Manning grew up amid profound social and economic changes. The price of cotton, which had become a dominant upcountry crop, declined in the 1870s and 1880s. Supply merchants like Manning’s father financed seeds and fertilizer at high rates of interest; many farmers fell into tenancy. As a result, a society once marked by a sense of equality among white landowners was increasingly stratified....