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Kramer, Stanleylocked

(29 September 1913–19 February 2001)
  • Bruce J. Evensen

Extract

Kramer, Stanley (29 September 1913–19 February 2001), motion picture producer and director, was born Stanley Earl Kramer in New York City's Hell's Kitchen, the only child of Mildred Kramer, a secretary in the New York office of Paramount Pictures; his father is not named in Kramer's autobiography or any other published source of information. His parents separated shortly after his birth, and he was raised by his mother in a “dark and airless hole in the wall” (Kramer and Coffey, p. 10) that she shared with her immigrant parents, Polish Jews who labored in the city's garment district. He ran with West Side gangs that “ruled the streets,” forming alliances with blacks “as an instrument of protection,” and sometimes menace, against the neighborhood Irish, Italians, and Hispanics....

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