- Berkeley Fleming
Polanyi, Karl (25 October 1886–23 April 1964), economic historian, was born Károly Pál Pollacsek in Vienna, the son of Mihály Pollacsek, a prosperous Hungarian railroad contractor, and Cecile Wohl, a salon convener. Educated at home, the Minta Gymnasium, and the University of Budapest, Karl was expelled in 1907 for helping defend Professor Gyula Pikler against reactionary students and officials. Pikler's relativist approach to social institutions and the law had led to his being subjected to classroom disruptions and other forms of harassment, to which Polanyi and other students objected. Having earned a doctorate of jurisprudence from the University of Kolozsvár under Bódog Somló in 1909, Polanyi took additional courses at Budapest, was admitted to the bar, and received his diploma in 1913....