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C. Hart Merriam Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-98680).

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Merriam, Clinton Hart (05 December 1855–19 March 1942), zoologist and government official, was born in New York City, the son of Clinton Levi Merriam, a businessman, banker, and two-term Republican U.S. congressman, and Caroline Hart. A younger sister, Florence ( Florence Augusta Merriam Bailey...

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Stiles, Charles Wardell (15 May 1867–24 January 1941), zoologist and public health official, was born in Spring Valley, New York, the son of Samuel Martin Stiles, a Methodist minister, and Elizabeth White. Raised in an atmosphere of religious severity, Stiles was torn between his father’s drive for him to become a minister and his own desire to become a scientist. To satisfy his family’s observance of the Sabbath, Stiles turned his religious studies into a game by mastering reading the Bible in French, German, Italian, and Greek, an exercise that greatly expanded his linguistic abilities. After finishing high school in Hartford, Connecticut, Stiles gave in to family pressures and enrolled at Wesleyan College in Middletown, Connecticut. Since Stiles had no intention of giving in to his father’s desires for him to become a minister, he led a carousing and revolutionary life that tested the bounds of Wesleyan discipline. Stiles’s strife to obtain high marks, the tension with his father, and the recurrence of debilitating headaches culminated in a case of neurasthenia, which caused him to abruptly leave college. Stiles’s neurasthenia and headaches dramatically improved after he was fitted with glasses and his father surrendered to his son’s desire to become a scientist....