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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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Chapin, Charles Value (17 January 1856–31 January 1941), public health officer and epidemiologist, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the son of Joshua Bicknell Chapin, who was successively a physician, pharmacist, photographer, and Rhode Island Commissioner of Public Schools, and Jane Catherine Louise Value, a portrait painter. After graduating with a B.A. from Brown University in 1876, Chapin remained in Providence for another year reading medicine under preceptors. He then continued his medical training with a year at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, followed by a year at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he studied pathology under ...

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Frost, Wade Hampton (03 March 1880–30 April 1938), epidemiologist and physician, was born in Marshall, Virginia, the son of Henry Frost, a physician and Sabra J. Walker. Frost was brought up in the rural setting of Marshall, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. His days as a boy were generally spent doing chores, accompanying his father on rounds to see patients throughout the countryside, and studying. Frost was schooled at home by his mother until the age of fifteen, when he was sent for a year to a military school in nearby Danville. He completed his college preparatory education at the Randolph Macon Academy, graduating in 1897. After working in a local store for a year, Frost entered the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He received his undergraduate degree three years later in the spring of 1901. That fall he enrolled in the University of Virginia’s Medical School, and he earned the degree of Doctor of Medicine in June 1903....

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Horsfall, Frank Lappin, Jr. (14 December 1906–19 February 1971), clinician, virologist, and administrator, was born in Seattle, Washington, the son of Frank Horsfall, a physician, and Jessie Laura Ludden. Horsfall first wanted to become an engineer, but by the end of four years of college at the University of Washington, his interests had switched to medicine, and he entered McGill University Medical School in Montreal, Canada, in 1927....

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Lumsden, Leslie Leon (14 June 1875–08 November 1946), epidemiologist and public health administrator, was born in Granite Springs, Virginia, the son of James Fife Lumsden, a merchant and farmer, and Martha Ann Hillman. His early education took place at private schools in Virginia. He gained admission to the Medical School of the University of Virginia without an undergraduate degree (a common practice at American medical schools well into the early twentieth century) and graduated with an M.D. in 1894. Lumsden secured an internship at the newly established Johns Hopkins Hospital, which with the related Baltimore medical school was setting a new American standard for excellence in medical education. His stint at Hopkins and two additional internships at New York hospitals gave Lumsden four years of postgraduate medical training. In March 1898 he was awarded a commission in the U.S. Public Health Service (then the Marine Hospital Service) after passing a series of rigorous examinations....

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Rosenau, Milton Joseph (01 January 1869–09 April 1946), epidemiologist and public health pioneer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Nathan Rosenau, a merchant, and Matilda Blitz. After receiving his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1889, he spent a year as an intern at Philadelphia General Hospital before joining the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (later part of the U.S. Public Health Service). He spent the next two years as an assistant surgeon at the Service’s hospital in Washington, D.C., then studied for a year at the Hygienic Institute of Berlin before returning to his post in Washington for another two years. In 1895 he was appointed quarantine officer for San Francisco, and for the next three years he oversaw quarantine and sanitation projects in California and the Philippine Islands. In 1898 he became the Service’s quarantine officer in Cuba....