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Bayne-Jones, Stanhope (06 November 1888–20 February 1970), physician and bacteriologist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Samuel Stanhope Davis Jones, a physician, and Amelia Elizabeth Bayne. His childhood was a tumultuous one, largely as a result of the struggles for his custody that followed the death of his mother in 1893 and the subsequent financial ruin and suicide of his father in 1894. Apparently at the instigation of his maternal relatives, in 1902 his last name was changed to Bayne-Jones....

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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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James C. Carroll. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-98372).

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Carroll, James (05 June 1854–16 September 1907), bacteriologist and military physician, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of James Carroll, a royal artillery gunner, and Harriet Chiverton. Having attended the Albion House Academy until the age of fifteen, Carroll left Britain for Canada, where he is said to have been a blacksmith, railroad laborer, and backwoodsman. He migrated to the United States in 1874 and volunteered for the U.S. Army, serving with the First Infantry in Montana. He reenlisted in 1879 and eventually was appointed hospital steward at Fort Douglas in Utah....

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Dameshek, William (22 May 1900–06 October 1969), physician and hematologist, was born in Voronezh, Russia, the son of Isadore Dameshek, a hatmaker, and Bessie Muskin. Dameshek moved with his parents to the United States in 1903 and was raised in Medford, Massachusetts. His early education was in the Boston English High School, where he excelled and gained entrance to Harvard University. He joined the U.S. Army in 1918, and upon his discharge he enrolled in the Harvard Medical School, where he received his M.D. in 1923. In the same year Dameshek married Rose Thurman; the couple had one daughter....

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Delafield, Francis (03 August 1841–17 July 1915), physician, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Delafield, a physician, and Julia Floyd. After graduating from Yale University (A.B., 1860), he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and was awarded the M.D. in 1863. He then went to Europe to continue his studies and was strongly influenced by the theories of Rudolf Virchow, author of ...

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George F. Dick. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07122).

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Dick, George Frederick (21 July 1881–12 October 1967), physician and bacteriologist, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Daniel Dick, a railroad engineer, and Elizabeth King. After two years of college at the Indiana University (1900–1901), Dick matriculated at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1905. He then completed an eighteen-month internship at the Cook County Hospital, where he learned about the clinical practice of medicine as he rotated between different clinical services, including internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, pathology, and general surgery. Like many an ambitious, young physician of the early twentieth century who set his sights on an academic career, Dick traveled, in 1907, to Vienna and Munich, where he spent the year studying bacteriology. Although he maintained an active presence as a clinician throughout his career, it was his brilliant work in bacteriology that brought him international acclaim....

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Dick, Gladys (18 December 1881–21 August 1963), medical researcher and physician, was born Gladys Rowena Henry in Pawnee City, Nebraska, the daughter of William Chester Henry, a house and grain dealer, and Azelia Henrietta Edson Henry. Her family relocated to Lincoln, Nebraska, following her birth, where she attended local public schools before entering the University of Nebraska. After earning her B.S. in 1900, she had hoped to attend medical school, but faced her mother's stern opposition to the idea, which few women at that time pursued. She spent the next two years teaching high school biology in nearby Kearney, Nebraska, and took additional graduate course work at her alma mater. After finally gaining parental approval, she left Nebraska and journeyed east to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine....

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Alphonse Raymond Dochez. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07249).

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Dochez, Alphonse Raymond (21 April 1882–30 June 1964), bacteriologist and internist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Louis Dochez and Josephine Dietrich. No record of Dochez’s early life exists until his mother moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he received his early education. Subsequently the family moved again to Harford County, Maryland, where they lived with Dochez’s mother’s family on their farm. Dochez continued his education by commuting to Baltimore and attending Johns Hopkins University, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1903. Following the recommendation of his uncle, Dochez went on to study medicine and earned his M.D. from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1907. The year after graduation, he worked in the pathology laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital, studying the effect of an iodine-free diet on animals....

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Harold C. Ernst. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B06901).

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Ernst, Harold Clarence (31 July 1856–07 September 1922), bacteriologist and physician, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Andrew Henry Ernst, a businessman, and Sarah H. Otis. He received an A.B. from Harvard College in 1876 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1880. After a year as house officer at the Rhode Island Hospital he began private practice in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, and became assistant to the pathologist at the Boston City Hospital. In 1883 he married Ellen Lunt Frothingham; they had no children....

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Francis, Thomas, Jr. (15 July 1900–01 October 1969), physician, virologist, and epidemiologist, was born in Gas City, Indiana, the son of Thomas Francis, a Methodist lay preacher and steelworker, and Elizabeth Ann Cadogan, a Salvation Army worker. He graduated from Allegheny College in 1921 and from Yale University School of Medicine in 1925. He received his residence training under Francis G. Blake at the New Haven Hospital....

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Frost, Wade Hampton (03 March 1880–30 April 1938), epidemiologist and physician, was born in Marshall, Virginia, the son of Henry Frost, a physician and Sabra J. Walker. Frost was brought up in the rural setting of Marshall, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. His days as a boy were generally spent doing chores, accompanying his father on rounds to see patients throughout the countryside, and studying. Frost was schooled at home by his mother until the age of fifteen, when he was sent for a year to a military school in nearby Danville. He completed his college preparatory education at the Randolph Macon Academy, graduating in 1897. After working in a local store for a year, Frost entered the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He received his undergraduate degree three years later in the spring of 1901. That fall he enrolled in the University of Virginia’s Medical School, and he earned the degree of Doctor of Medicine in June 1903....

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Gerhard, William Wood (23 July 1809–28 April 1872), physician and pathologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Gerhard, a hatter, and Sarah Wood. His parents were Moravians. After graduation from Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1826, Gerhard received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1830. His thesis on endermic medication, based on nearly 200 cases that he had observed as a resident pupil in the Philadelphia Almshouse, appeared in the ...

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Arthur Emanuel Hertzler Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Hertzler, Arthur Emanuel (25 July 1870–12 September 1946), physician, surgeon, and pathologist, was born in the Mennonite community of West Point, Iowa, the son of Daniel Hertzler, a farmer, and Hannah Krehbiel, the first Mennonite child born west of the Mississippi River. Hertzler’s parents grew to hold divergent religious beliefs, separating their family, according to Hertzler, “as completely broken as it would have been by divorce,” and leaving Hertzler a lifelong skeptic about organized religion....

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Hirsch, James Gerald (31 October 1922–25 May 1987), physician and biomedical research scientist, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Mack J. Hirsch, a merchant, and Henrietta B. Schiffman. Hirsch was raised in Pinckneyville, Illinois, graduating from the coal-mining town’s one-room grammar school. He then attended Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois, before beginning undergraduate study at Yale University at the age of sixteen. During his freshman year Hirsch injured his knee playing basketball, which restricted him to scholarly pursuits, including editing the ...

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Lining, John ( April 1708–21 September 1760), physician and scientist, was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, the son of Thomas Lining, a minister, and Anne Hamilton. Between 1697 and 1728 his native shire produced four of the leading figures of British medicine: William Smellie, William Cullen, William Hunter, and John Hunter. Given this fertile environment, it is not surprising that Lining turned to medicine as a career. In addition to studying medicine in Scotland, it is likely that he also studied at the University of Leyden but did not take a degree. He was a friend and most probably a student of Leyden resident D. Hermann Boerhaave, then the most influential medical educator and theorist in Europe (Waring, p. 255)....