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Johnson, Wendell Andrew Leroy (16 April 1906–29 August 1965), speech pathologist and psychologist, was born in Roxbury, Kansas, the son of Andrew Robert Johnson and Mary Helena Tarnstrom, farmers. Johnson began to stutter at an early age, a fact that had a profound impact on his personal and professional development. To compensate for his speech problem, Johnson filled his childhood by reading books from his father’s library and by excelling in academics and athletics. He acquired a strong desire to express himself through writing....

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Scripture, Edward Wheeler (21 May 1864–31 July 1945), psychologist, phoneticist, and speech therapist, was born in Mason, New Hampshire, the son of Orin Murray Scripture, a New York commodity trader, and Mary Frances Wheeler. After graduating from the College of the City of New York with an A.B. in 1884, Scripture studied at the universities of Berlin, Leipzig, and Zurich. The new experimental psychology then emerging from philosophy in Europe impressed him, as it did many other young Americans studying abroad. His 1891 Leipzig Ph.D. dissertation, which was directed by the influential psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, experimentally addressed the associative course of thought and won him a brief appointment at Clark University as fellow and assistant editor of university president ...