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Hartmann, George Wilfred (29 March 1904–11 June 1955), psychologist and pacifist, was born in Union Hill, New Jersey, the son of Herman Carl Hartmann, a roofer and tinsmith, and Veronica Ruff. As a scholarship student at Columbia University (A.B. 1924), Hartmann excelled in German (his major), history, and psychology. Shifting to psychology for its greater opportunities and social utility, he combined graduate study at Columbia (A.M. 1925; Ph.D. 1928) with instructorships there and at Dartmouth College. As a student he met his wife, Esther Leah Norton; they had two children. From 1928 to 1935 he served as a professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State College. In 1935 he returned to New York as a postdoctoral fellow and then became a professor of educational psychology at Teachers College (1936–1949)....