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Avery, Oswald Theodore (21 October 1877–20 February 1955), bacteriologist, was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, the son of Joseph Francis Avery, a Baptist minister, and Elizabeth Crowdy. Avery’s family moved in 1887 to New York City, where he attended New York Male Grammar School. He received his diploma from that institution in 1893 and continued his education at the Colgate Academy. In 1896 he entered Colgate University, from which he received a B.S. in 1900. He then began the study of medicine at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons and received an M.D. in 1904. After completing his medical studies, Avery joined the clinical practice of a group of surgeons in New York City. He related well to patients, but because clinical work did not satisfy him intellectually or emotionally, he left the practice around 1907 and worked for a time with the New York City Board of Health and then the Sheffield Dairy Company in Brooklyn as a milk bacteriologist. Later in 1907 he became a bacteriologist at the Hoagland Laboratories in Brooklyn, where director Benjamin White became so impressed with Avery that within a short time he appointed him chief of the division. Avery’s work on bacteria and their relationship to infectious disease attracted the attention of ...

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Bayne-Jones, Stanhope (06 November 1888–20 February 1970), physician and bacteriologist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Samuel Stanhope Davis Jones, a physician, and Amelia Elizabeth Bayne. His childhood was a tumultuous one, largely as a result of the struggles for his custody that followed the death of his mother in 1893 and the subsequent financial ruin and suicide of his father in 1894. Apparently at the instigation of his maternal relatives, in 1902 his last name was changed to Bayne-Jones....

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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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James C. Carroll. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-98372).

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Carroll, James (05 June 1854–16 September 1907), bacteriologist and military physician, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of James Carroll, a royal artillery gunner, and Harriet Chiverton. Having attended the Albion House Academy until the age of fifteen, Carroll left Britain for Canada, where he is said to have been a blacksmith, railroad laborer, and backwoodsman. He migrated to the United States in 1874 and volunteered for the U.S. Army, serving with the First Infantry in Montana. He reenlisted in 1879 and eventually was appointed hospital steward at Fort Douglas in Utah....

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Daniel M. Fox and Marcia L. Meldrum

de Kruif, Paul Henry (02 March 1890–28 February 1971), bacteriologist and writer, was born in Zeeland, Michigan, the son of Hendrik de Kruif, a farm-equipment dealer, and Hendrika Kremer. As an undergraduate at the University of Michigan, he read an article about Paul Ehrlich, the German bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, which he credited with inspiring him to become a “microbe hunter.” He received his B.S. degree in 1912 and remained at Michigan as a Rockefeller research fellow, working with ...

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George F. Dick. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07122).

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Dick, George Frederick (21 July 1881–12 October 1967), physician and bacteriologist, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Daniel Dick, a railroad engineer, and Elizabeth King. After two years of college at the Indiana University (1900–1901), Dick matriculated at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1905. He then completed an eighteen-month internship at the Cook County Hospital, where he learned about the clinical practice of medicine as he rotated between different clinical services, including internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, pathology, and general surgery. Like many an ambitious, young physician of the early twentieth century who set his sights on an academic career, Dick traveled, in 1907, to Vienna and Munich, where he spent the year studying bacteriology. Although he maintained an active presence as a clinician throughout his career, it was his brilliant work in bacteriology that brought him international acclaim....

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Dick, Gladys (18 December 1881–21 August 1963), medical researcher and physician, was born Gladys Rowena Henry in Pawnee City, Nebraska, the daughter of William Chester Henry, a house and grain dealer, and Azelia Henrietta Edson Henry. Her family relocated to Lincoln, Nebraska, following her birth, where she attended local public schools before entering the University of Nebraska. After earning her B.S. in 1900, she had hoped to attend medical school, but faced her mother's stern opposition to the idea, which few women at that time pursued. She spent the next two years teaching high school biology in nearby Kearney, Nebraska, and took additional graduate course work at her alma mater. After finally gaining parental approval, she left Nebraska and journeyed east to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine....

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Alphonse Raymond Dochez. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07249).

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Dochez, Alphonse Raymond (21 April 1882–30 June 1964), bacteriologist and internist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Louis Dochez and Josephine Dietrich. No record of Dochez’s early life exists until his mother moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he received his early education. Subsequently the family moved again to Harford County, Maryland, where they lived with Dochez’s mother’s family on their farm. Dochez continued his education by commuting to Baltimore and attending Johns Hopkins University, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1903. Following the recommendation of his uncle, Dochez went on to study medicine and earned his M.D. from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1907. The year after graduation, he worked in the pathology laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital, studying the effect of an iodine-free diet on animals....

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Enders, John Franklin (10 February 1897–08 September 1985), virologist, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, the son of John Ostrom Enders, a banker, and Harriet G. Whitmore. Enders had little exposure to science in his youth, except through his uncle, a physician. He graduated from St. Paul’s School in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1915 after attending Noah Webster High School in Hartford. In school he had no particular interest in Science. In 1915 Enders entered Yale, and after spending two years there, he entered the U.S. Naval Reserve and learned to fly. He served first as an ensign and then as a lieutenant and flight instructor at Pensacola, Florida....

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Harold C. Ernst. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B06901).

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Ernst, Harold Clarence (31 July 1856–07 September 1922), bacteriologist and physician, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Andrew Henry Ernst, a businessman, and Sarah H. Otis. He received an A.B. from Harvard College in 1876 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1880. After a year as house officer at the Rhode Island Hospital he began private practice in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, and became assistant to the pathologist at the Boston City Hospital. In 1883 he married Ellen Lunt Frothingham; they had no children....

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Flexner, Simon (25 March 1863–02 May 1946), pathologist and bacteriologist, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the son of well-educated Jewish immigrants Morris Flexner, a merchant and salesman, and Esther Abraham, a seamstress. Simon Flexner had little formal education. As a child he was an indifferent student and a mischief maker. He quit school in the sixth grade and held a variety of menial jobs. At age sixteen he nearly succumbed to typhoid fever, and after he recovered his attitude toward education changed. He became a pharmacy apprentice at Vincent Davis’s drugstore for two years and attended two three-month courses of lectures at the Louisville College of Pharmacy, surprising his family by finishing first in his class in 1882. Upon graduating he clerked for eight years in the drugstore owned by his eldest brother, Jacob. Simon lived over the store, made up for his educational deficits by studying math and science from his brothers’ school books, took up botanizing and microscopy, and organized the Louisville Microscopical Club. He taught himself histology and acquired an interest in pathology through local doctors, who gathered to converse in Jacob’s store and brought him specimens to analyze. Simon Flexner hoped to open his own pathological laboratory in Louisville, so he entered the University of Louisville School of Medicine and earned an M.D. in 1889. At the urging of his younger brother Abraham, who later became known for writing the Carnegie Institution report on American medical schools, Flexner enrolled in the postgraduate course in pathology at the Johns Hopkins University....

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Francis, Thomas, Jr. (15 July 1900–01 October 1969), physician, virologist, and epidemiologist, was born in Gas City, Indiana, the son of Thomas Francis, a Methodist lay preacher and steelworker, and Elizabeth Ann Cadogan, a Salvation Army worker. He graduated from Allegheny College in 1921 and from Yale University School of Medicine in 1925. He received his residence training under Francis G. Blake at the New Haven Hospital....

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Fred, Edwin Broun (22 March 1887–16 January 1981), bacteriologist and university president, was born in Middleburg, Virginia, the son of Samuel Rogers Fred, a landowner, and Catherine “Kate” Conway Broun. Fred’s interest in science began as a boy in Virginia. Having completed his B.S. at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) in 1907, Fred stayed on to complete his M.S. at the same institution in 1908. While pursuing this first phase of graduate work, he held an appointment as an assistant in bacteriology. For his doctoral work Fred went abroad in 1909, getting his Ph.D. from the University of Göttingen in Germany in 1911. This was a natural decision given that the virtues of German graduate education were extolled by many at VPI, including bacteriology professor Meade Ferguson, who himself received a Ph.D. at Göttingen. Fred studied under some of the leading scientists of the day, including bacteriologist Alfred Koch....

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Gay, Frederick Parker (22 July 1874–14 July 1939), bacteriologist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of George Frederick Gay, the owner of a wholesale grocery business, and Louisa Maria Parker. After graduating from the Boston Latin School, he matriculated at Harvard University. During the summer of 1894 he accompanied the Arctic explorer ...

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Gradle, Henry (17 August 1855–04 April 1911), ophthalmologist and early proponent of bacteriology, was born in Friedburg, a suburb of Frankfurt-am-Main, Prussia, the son of Bernard Gradle and Rose Schottenfels Groedel. In 1859 Bernard Gradle emigrated to the United States and eventually established himself in the tobacco business in Chicago. Rose Gradle and her son moved to Darmstadt where Henry received his early education; she died in 1866 and two years later, when Henry had finished his elementary education, he joined his father in Chicago....

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Horsfall, Frank Lappin, Jr. (14 December 1906–19 February 1971), clinician, virologist, and administrator, was born in Seattle, Washington, the son of Frank Horsfall, a physician, and Jessie Laura Ludden. Horsfall first wanted to become an engineer, but by the end of four years of college at the University of Washington, his interests had switched to medicine, and he entered McGill University Medical School in Montreal, Canada, in 1927....