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Bayne-Jones, Stanhope (06 November 1888–20 February 1970), physician and bacteriologist, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Samuel Stanhope Davis Jones, a physician, and Amelia Elizabeth Bayne. His childhood was a tumultuous one, largely as a result of the struggles for his custody that followed the death of his mother in 1893 and the subsequent financial ruin and suicide of his father in 1894. Apparently at the instigation of his maternal relatives, in 1902 his last name was changed to Bayne-Jones....

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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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James C. Carroll. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-98372).

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Carroll, James (05 June 1854–16 September 1907), bacteriologist and military physician, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of James Carroll, a royal artillery gunner, and Harriet Chiverton. Having attended the Albion House Academy until the age of fifteen, Carroll left Britain for Canada, where he is said to have been a blacksmith, railroad laborer, and backwoodsman. He migrated to the United States in 1874 and volunteered for the U.S. Army, serving with the First Infantry in Montana. He reenlisted in 1879 and eventually was appointed hospital steward at Fort Douglas in Utah....

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George F. Dick. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07122).

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Dick, George Frederick (21 July 1881–12 October 1967), physician and bacteriologist, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Daniel Dick, a railroad engineer, and Elizabeth King. After two years of college at the Indiana University (1900–1901), Dick matriculated at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1905. He then completed an eighteen-month internship at the Cook County Hospital, where he learned about the clinical practice of medicine as he rotated between different clinical services, including internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, pathology, and general surgery. Like many an ambitious, young physician of the early twentieth century who set his sights on an academic career, Dick traveled, in 1907, to Vienna and Munich, where he spent the year studying bacteriology. Although he maintained an active presence as a clinician throughout his career, it was his brilliant work in bacteriology that brought him international acclaim....

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Dick, Gladys (18 December 1881–21 August 1963), medical researcher and physician, was born Gladys Rowena Henry in Pawnee City, Nebraska, the daughter of William Chester Henry, a house and grain dealer, and Azelia Henrietta Edson Henry. Her family relocated to Lincoln, Nebraska, following her birth, where she attended local public schools before entering the University of Nebraska. After earning her B.S. in 1900, she had hoped to attend medical school, but faced her mother's stern opposition to the idea, which few women at that time pursued. She spent the next two years teaching high school biology in nearby Kearney, Nebraska, and took additional graduate course work at her alma mater. After finally gaining parental approval, she left Nebraska and journeyed east to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine....

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Alphonse Raymond Dochez. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07249).

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Dochez, Alphonse Raymond (21 April 1882–30 June 1964), bacteriologist and internist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Louis Dochez and Josephine Dietrich. No record of Dochez’s early life exists until his mother moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he received his early education. Subsequently the family moved again to Harford County, Maryland, where they lived with Dochez’s mother’s family on their farm. Dochez continued his education by commuting to Baltimore and attending Johns Hopkins University, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1903. Following the recommendation of his uncle, Dochez went on to study medicine and earned his M.D. from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1907. The year after graduation, he worked in the pathology laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital, studying the effect of an iodine-free diet on animals....

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Harold C. Ernst. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B06901).

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Ernst, Harold Clarence (31 July 1856–07 September 1922), bacteriologist and physician, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Andrew Henry Ernst, a businessman, and Sarah H. Otis. He received an A.B. from Harvard College in 1876 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1880. After a year as house officer at the Rhode Island Hospital he began private practice in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, and became assistant to the pathologist at the Boston City Hospital. In 1883 he married Ellen Lunt Frothingham; they had no children....

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Francis, Thomas, Jr. (15 July 1900–01 October 1969), physician, virologist, and epidemiologist, was born in Gas City, Indiana, the son of Thomas Francis, a Methodist lay preacher and steelworker, and Elizabeth Ann Cadogan, a Salvation Army worker. He graduated from Allegheny College in 1921 and from Yale University School of Medicine in 1925. He received his residence training under Francis G. Blake at the New Haven Hospital....

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Park, William Hallock (30 December 1863–06 April 1939), physician and bacteriologist, was born in New York City, the son of Rufus Park, owner of a chandlery and wholesale grocery, and Harriet Joanna Hallock. His mother was quite frail, so his half-sister Julia took most of the responsibility for childrearing. In his precollegiate education at the Boys’ Public School and at Dr. Chapin’s Collegiate Institute, Park did not distinguish himself; the only academic recognition he achieved in those years was winning a medal at Collegiate for rising from the bottom of his class to somewhere above average....

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Walter Reed. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Reed, Walter (13 September 1851–23 November 1902), U.S. Army medical officer and bacteriologist, was born in Belroi, Virginia, the son of Lemuel Sutton Reed, a Methodist minister, and Pharaba White. After a year as an undergraduate, Reed entered medical school at the University of Virginia in 1868 at the age of seventeen; when he received an M.D. in July 1869, he was the youngest to receive this degree in the school’s history. After a year of study at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York City, he earned a second M.D., although this degree was not officially awarded until he turned twenty-one. In 1871, after a brief time on the staff of the Kings County Hospital at Brooklyn, he accepted a residency at Brooklyn City Hospital and then served as an assistant sanitary officer for the Brooklyn Board of Health....

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Sabin, Albert Bruce (26 August 1906–03 March 1993), physician, scientist, and research immunologist, was born near Bialystok, Russia (now Poland), the son of Jacob Sabin and Tillie Krugman, silk weavers. Sabin immigrated with his family to the United States in 1919, settling first in Patterson, New Jersey. His collegiate career began with the study of dentistry at New York University, but ...

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Jonas Salk Inoculating a boy, c. 1954. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-92227).

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Salk, Jonas Edward (28 October 1914–23 June 1995), physician and virologist, was born in New York City, the son of Orthodox Jewish-Polish immigrants Daniel B. Salk, a garment worker, and Dora “Dolly” Press. Salk’s early years were spent in a tenement in East Harlem and later in the Bronx, where he attended grade school. A voracious reader, he won entry at age twelve to the elite Townsend Harris High School, and after graduating at fifteen, he in 1930 entered City College. Although he initially considered becoming a lawyer, at City College he decided that science was more fascinating than law and resolved to become a doctor....

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Shakespeare, Edward Oram (19 May 1846–01 June 1900), physician, bacteriologist, and public health advocate, was born in New Castle County, Delaware, the son of William McIntire Shakespeare and Catherine Haman. Shakespeare’s eulogists omit reference to his parent’s occupations but mention that he was a descendant of English dramatist William Shakespeare’s brother and that his family had been established in Delaware for several generations at the time of his birth. Shakespeare attended Reynolds’ Classical Academy in Dover, Delaware. While an undergraduate at Dickinson College, Shakespeare served as an apprentice to two physicians in Dover. After earning an A.B. in 1867, he entered medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1869. He then spent less than five years in partnership with Isaac Jurup, “an old established physician of large practice” in Dover (Watson, p. 163) before returning to Philadelphia, where he remained an active member of the medical scene until his death. He had a number of institutional affiliations, but none occupied him full time or defined his career. In 1889 he married Mary Louise Baird, the daughter of an officer of the Baldwin Locomotive Works; they had two children....

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South, Lillian Herreld (31 January 1879–14 September 1966), physician, epidemiologist, and bacteriologist, was born near Bowling Green, Kentucky, the daughter of J. F. South, a physician, and Martha Bell Moore. She graduated from E. B. Potter College in Bowling Green in 1897. South studied at the Paterson (N.J.) General Hospital School of Nursing, earning an R.N. degree in 1899. She then enrolled at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, graduating with an M.D. in 1904. From 1906 to 1910 she practiced medicine in Bowling Green with partners ...