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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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Gradle, Henry (17 August 1855–04 April 1911), ophthalmologist and early proponent of bacteriology, was born in Friedburg, a suburb of Frankfurt-am-Main, Prussia, the son of Bernard Gradle and Rose Schottenfels Groedel. In 1859 Bernard Gradle emigrated to the United States and eventually established himself in the tobacco business in Chicago. Rose Gradle and her son moved to Darmstadt where Henry received his early education; she died in 1866 and two years later, when Henry had finished his elementary education, he joined his father in Chicago....

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Perkins, Roger Griswold (17 May 1874–28 March 1936), bacteriologist, was born in Schenectady, New York, the son of Maurice Perkins, a Union College professor of chemistry, and Annie Dunbar Potts. Perkins graduated from Union College in 1893 and Harvard in 1894, receiving the A.B. from both institutions. He completed the M.D. in 1898 at Johns Hopkins Medical School and moved to Cleveland, where he began his career as resident pathologist at Lakeside Hospital. In 1899 he was appointed to the position of demonstrator in pathology and in 1901 became lecturer in bacteriology at Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Subsequently he held faculty positions in pathology, hygiene, and preventive medicine, achieving full professor in 1910. He remained at Western Reserve University until his retirement in 1930....

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Ravenel, Mazÿck Porcher (16 June 1861–14 January 1946), bacteriologist and public health leader, was born in Pendleton, South Carolina, the son of Henry Edmund Ravenel and Selina Eliza Porcher. His father was a seventh generation member of a family of prominent merchants, bankers, and civic leaders whose French Huguenot ancestors had settled near Charleston, South Carolina, after the Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1695. Although his father died when Mazÿck was two, and the Ravenel fortunes suffered severely during the Civil War, Mazÿck attended private schools in Charleston. He graduated from the University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee, in 1881. In 1884 he received an M.D. from the Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston. He helped found the Charleston Medical School and there taught anatomy and diseases of children, while practicing medicine for six years. His career in public health began with his study of hygiene and bacteriology at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was listed with the first students to take classes at its new Laboratory of Hygiene, opened in 1892 under the direction of ...

Article

Shakespeare, Edward Oram (19 May 1846–01 June 1900), physician, bacteriologist, and public health advocate, was born in New Castle County, Delaware, the son of William McIntire Shakespeare and Catherine Haman. Shakespeare’s eulogists omit reference to his parent’s occupations but mention that he was a descendant of English dramatist William Shakespeare’s brother and that his family had been established in Delaware for several generations at the time of his birth. Shakespeare attended Reynolds’ Classical Academy in Dover, Delaware. While an undergraduate at Dickinson College, Shakespeare served as an apprentice to two physicians in Dover. After earning an A.B. in 1867, he entered medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1869. He then spent less than five years in partnership with Isaac Jurup, “an old established physician of large practice” in Dover (Watson, p. 163) before returning to Philadelphia, where he remained an active member of the medical scene until his death. He had a number of institutional affiliations, but none occupied him full time or defined his career. In 1889 he married Mary Louise Baird, the daughter of an officer of the Baldwin Locomotive Works; they had two children....