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Goodale, George Lincoln (03 August 1839–12 April 1923), physician, botanist, and educator, was born in Saco, Maine, the son of Stephen Lincoln Goodale, a pharmacist and agricultural chemist, and Prudence Aiken Nourse. After serving an apprenticeship in his father’s apothecary shop, he entered Amherst College in 1856; there he received instruction from ...

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William James MacNeven. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B018277).

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MacNeven, William James (21 March 1763–12 July 1841), physician, professor, and Irish-American nationalist, was born on a small estate in Ballynahowne, County Galway, Ireland, the son of James MacNeven and Rosa Dolphin. William’s mother died when he was young, and he and his three brothers were raised by their aunt. At age ten or eleven William was sent to Prague to live with his uncle Baron William O’Kelley MacNeven, a court physician to Empress Maria Theresa. Following a classical education, William attended university in Prague and went on to study medicine at the University of Vienna, from which he graduated in 1783. In 1784 MacNeven returned to Dublin, where he established a medical practice....

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Miles, Manly (20 July 1826–15 February 1898), physician, biologist, and professor of agriculture, was born in Homer, New York, the son of Manly Miles and Mary Cushman, farmers. When he was eleven, his family moved to a farm in eastern Michigan, near Flint. Trained in farm labor and deeply interested in science, especially chemistry and biology, in which he was ambitiously self-educated, he earned an M.D. from Chicago’s Rush Medical College in 1850. He married Mary E. Dodge in 1851. After practicing medicine in Flint for nine years, he became zoologist for Michigan’s new state geological survey. As its physician and zoologist he gathered collections of mollusca, birds, reptiles, and other animals, some of which he shared with scholars, including ...

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Pendleton, Edmund Monroe (19 March 1815–26 January 1884), physician, entrepreneur, and educator, was born in Eatonton, Georgia, the son of Coleman Pendleton and Martha Gilbert. When his formal education in local private schools ended after only a few years because of his family’s financial reverses, Pendleton entered the business world. He shared the ownership of a jewelry store in Columbus, Georgia, and later ran a similar business with a cousin, W. B. Johnston, in Macon, Georgia. While working in the latter location Pendleton came across a chemistry textbook, which served as his introduction to science. He soon developed an interest in medicine and studied the subject independently and in the office of a local doctor. Determined to learn as much as possible on the subject, he also served an apprenticeship with a local pharmacist. Pendleton entered the newly founded (1833) Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston and graduated in 1837. While attending lectures at the college he also studied in the medical office of the college’s founder, ...

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Benjamin Rush. Engraving by James Barton Longacreof a painting by Thomas Sully. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-97104 ).

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Rush, Benjamin (04 January 1746–19 April 1813), physician, professor of chemistry and of medicine, and social reformer, was born in Byberry Township, Pennsylvania, thirteen miles northeast of Philadelphia, the son of John Rush, a farmer and gunsmith, and Susanna Hall Harvey. John Rush died when Benjamin was five years old. His mother ran a grocery store to support the family. She sent Benjamin at age eight to live with an uncle by marriage, the Reverend Dr. ...