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Deane, Charles (10 November 1813–13 November 1886), antiquarian and historian, was born in Biddeford, Maine (then part of Mass.), the son of Ezra Deane, a physician. Charles Deane’s mother (given name unknown) was the daughter of Reverend Silas Moody of Kennebunkport. His father had practiced medicine in several different towns in Maine before settling in Biddeford. There Deane attended the public school and a classical school led by Phineas Pratt. The family intended for him to attend Bowdoin College, but this was prevented by the death of his older brother. He worked in two stores, one in Kennebunkport and one in Saco, before he went to Boston at the age of nineteen....

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Drake, Francis Samuel (22 February 1828–22 February 1885), historian, author, and antiquarian, was born in Northwood, New Hampshire, the son of Samuel Gardner Drake and Louisa M. Elmes. His family moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where his father became the proprietor of a popular antiquarian bookstore, wrote books concerning American history and Indians and edited other such books. Drake was educated in the Boston public schools, mainly at the Mayhew School, after which he worked in his father’s store and then as an accountant for a Boston company....

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Earle, Alice Morse (27 April 1851–16 February 1911), antiquarian and social historian, was born Mary Alice Morse in Worcester, Massachusetts, the daughter of Edwin Morse, a machinist and factory owner, and Abigail Mason Clary Goodhue. Her father, originally from rural Andover, Vermont, transformed his mechanical proficiency into a partnership in Shepherd, Lathe, and Company, a Worcester machine and tool manufactory. Her mother, from the village of Jackson, Maine, applied her teaching experience and domestic abilities to the creation of a safe, nurturing environment in which to cultivate her urban family. Mary Alice (who was always known as Alice) grew up in a comfortable, middle-class world, graduated from Worcester’s Classical and English High School in 1869, and completed her formal education at Dr. George Gannett’s finishing school in Boston. In 1874 she married Henry Earle of Providence, Rhode Island, and moved to Brooklyn, New York. Sixteen years later, when the last of her four children was eight, Earle began to write....

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Gardiner, Leon (25 November 1892–05 March 1945), African-American bibliophile, researcher, and photographer, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the son of Jacob Gardiner and Martha (maiden name unknown). In 1902 he and his family moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. From childhood he was interested in reading, cross-country running, hiking, camping, and bicycling. Later he developed an interest in music, choir singing, and photography. Blatant racial discrimination kept him from attending the photography school of his choice in Philadelphia, to his great disappointment. In the very early 1900s he began to collect material of various kinds concerning the achievements of blacks, black institutions, and lynchings of blacks....

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Lyon, Irving Whitall (19 October 1840–04 March 1896), antiquarian, author, and physician, was born in Bedford, New York, the son of Solomon Lyon and Hannah Rundell. He graduated from the Lawrenceville (Pa.) Preparatory School, the Vermont Medical College, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. Lyon practiced medicine for a brief period with the Union army during the Civil War, followed by work at the Bellevue Hospital in New York City (1864–1866). In 1866 he turned to private practice and relocated to Hartford, Connecticut, where he worked for the remainder of his life. In addition to publishing numerous articles on medicine and surgery, Lyon was also medical examiner for the Hartford Life and Annuity Company. At the time of his death, he was serving an extended term as president of the Hartford County Medical Society. He married Mary Elizabeth Tucker of New York; the couple had three children....

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Sachse, Julius Friedrich (22 November 1842–14 November 1919), antiquarian, historian, and photographer, was born in Philadelphia, the son of Johann Heinrich Friedrich Sachse, an artist and designer, and Julianna D. W. Bühler. Julius F. Sachse attended public schools and the Lutheran Academy but had no university education; he was largely a self-educated man. Sachse’s early business career was as a merchant of men’s clothing accessories and a manufacturer of men’s silk shirts. His achievements in shirtmaking were recognized at international trade fairs....

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Whitmore, William Henry (06 September 1836–14 June 1900), antiquary, Boston historian, and genealogist, was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Octavius Whitmore, a businessman, and Lovice Ayers. Whitmore studied at the Boston Latin and English High Schools. He then joined C. O. Whitman and Sons, his father’s commission merchant business....