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Gardiner, Leon (25 November 1892–05 March 1945), African-American bibliophile, researcher, and photographer, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the son of Jacob Gardiner and Martha (maiden name unknown). In 1902 he and his family moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. From childhood he was interested in reading, cross-country running, hiking, camping, and bicycling. Later he developed an interest in music, choir singing, and photography. Blatant racial discrimination kept him from attending the photography school of his choice in Philadelphia, to his great disappointment. In the very early 1900s he began to collect material of various kinds concerning the achievements of blacks, black institutions, and lynchings of blacks....

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Nutting, Wallace (17 November 1861–19 July 1941), author, photographer, and antiquarian, was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, the son of Albion Nutting, a farmer and manufacturer, and Elizabeth Sanborn Fifield. Following his father’s death while serving in the Union army, Nutting grew up at the farm of an uncle in Maine. He dropped out of school in Augusta, Maine, because of poor health, then he worked and traveled for four years until he enrolled in Phillips Exeter Academy, from which he graduated in 1883. He studied at Harvard from 1883 until 1886, Hartford Theological Seminary from 1886 until 1887, and Union Theological Seminary in 1888. In 1888 he was ordained a Congregational minister. The same year Nutting married Mrs. Mariet Griswold Caswell of Colrain, Massachusetts; they had no children....

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Sachse, Julius Friedrich (22 November 1842–14 November 1919), antiquarian, historian, and photographer, was born in Philadelphia, the son of Johann Heinrich Friedrich Sachse, an artist and designer, and Julianna D. W. Bühler. Julius F. Sachse attended public schools and the Lutheran Academy but had no university education; he was largely a self-educated man. Sachse’s early business career was as a merchant of men’s clothing accessories and a manufacturer of men’s silk shirts. His achievements in shirtmaking were recognized at international trade fairs....