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Bandelier, Adolph Francis Alphonse (06 August 1840–18 March 1914), archaeologist, ethnologist, and historian, was born in Bern, Switzerland, the son of Adolphe Eugene Bandelier, a jurist and banker, and Marianne Senn, widow of Colonel Adrian Ritter, a Swiss army officer who served as a tutor in Russia—possibly at the Russian court. In 1847 Bandelier’s father, disagreeing with the Swiss parties in power following the Sonderbund war, traveled to Brazil. Finding, however, that he disliked Brazil’s slave-based society, he moved to the Swiss community of Highland, Illinois, where his wife and son joined him in 1848. In Highland, Bandelier was tutored at home. His mother died in 1855. In 1861 he married Josephine Huegy, daughter of one of his father’s banking partners. The couple had no children. Bandelier referred to French as his “native language” and preferred to pronounce his name Bahn-duh-lee-ay, but he appears to have been even more fluent in German....

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Emory, Kenneth Pike (23 November 1897–02 January 1992), archaeologist and anthropologist, was born in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, the son of Walter Emory, a construction superintendent for the Young Hotel and an architect, and Winifred Pike. His father moved the family to Hawaii in 1900, where he opened the architectural firm of Emory and Webb. Kenneth studied the Hawaiian language on his own initiative while attending Punahou School, graduating in 1916. Ever adventurous, he was invited to sail with ...

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Heizer, Robert Fleming (13 July 1915–18 July 1979), archaeologist and anthropologist, was born in Denver, Colorado, the son of Ott Fleming Heizer, a mining engineer, and Martha Madden. Much of his youth was spent in the countryside, in particular in the semiarid region around Lovelock, Nevada. There he learned how to live off the land, and he acquired a deep interest in and affection for the Nevadan and, later, the Californian Indians, observing their way of life, history, social organization, and technology....