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von Neumann, John Louis (28 December 1903–08 February 1957), mathematician, mathematical physicist, and theoretical economist, was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Max Neumann, a well-to-do banker, and Margaret Kann. He was born Neumann János (in Hungarian the surname is written first). In 1913 his father was ennobled by the Kaiser Franz Joseph with the hereditary title of “Margittai,” which is roughly the Hungarian equivalent of “von.” While studying in Germany, the young Neumann used the name Johann Ludwig von Neumann, and because this name appeared on his German publications before coming to the United States, his name was anglicized retaining the “von” title. He attended the Lutheran Gymnasium in Budapest and from 1921 to 1923 studied chemistry and mathematics at the University of Berlin. In 1923 he entered the Eidgenosse Technische Hochschule in Zürich, from which he received the degree of ...