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Hays, Isaac (05 July 1796–12 April 1879), physician and editor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Hays, a merchant, and Richea Gratz. A successful merchant in the East India trade, Hays’s father attained considerable wealth and provided his son with an excellent education and introduction to the cultural life of Philadelphia. Raised in the Jewish faith, Hays was for many years a pupil in the Philadelphia grammar school run by the eminent divine and classical scholar Samuel B. Wylie, who later became professor of ancient languages at the University of Pennsylvania. Hays entered the university in 1812 and graduated four years later with a B.A....

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Howard Atwood Kelly. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Kelly, Howard Atwood (20 February 1858–12 January 1943), surgeon, gynecologist, and medical biographer, was born in Camden, New Jersey, the son of Henry Kuhl Kelly, a prosperous sugar broker, and Louise Warner Hard, the daughter of an Episcopal clergyman. During his youth, Kelly’s mother instilled in him a love of the Bible and the natural sciences. He attended the University of Pennsylvania, receiving the A.B. in 1877. Kelly originally intended to become a naturalist, but his father persuaded him to study medicine so that he would have a more secure income. In 1882 he received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He then served sixteen months as resident physician at the Episcopal Hospital in Kensington, a Philadelphia suburb with many poor. In 1883, upon completion of his internship, Kelly established a two-room “hospital,” which by 1887 evolved into the Kensington Hospital for Women and was supported by voluntary contributions. In 1888 Kelly performed the first caesarean section in Philadelphia in fifty years in which the mother survived. Among his colleagues this did much to enhance his reputation as a bold and skillful surgeon. During the year 1888–1889 he served as associate professor of obstetrics at the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania....

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Franklin Henry Martin. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Martin, Franklin Henry (13 July 1857–07 March 1935), surgeon, organizer, and editor, was born on a farm near Ixonia, Wisconsin, the son of Edmond Martin and Josephine Carlin, farmers. Martin’s father died in the Union army in 1862. Five years later his mother remarried, and young Martin was put under the care of his maternal grandparents. After passing the teacher’s examination, he taught at several village schools....

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Mathews, Joseph McDowell (26 May 1847–02 December 1928), surgeon and medical editor, was born in New Castle, Henry County, Kentucky, the son of Caleb M. Mathews, a lawyer and jurist, and Frances S. Edwards. Educated at the New Castle Academy, Mathews began his medical preceptorship in his home town under his brother-in-law, William B. Oldham. Beginning in 1865 he attended two sessions of medical lectures at the Kentucky School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, obtaining his M.D. in 1867 from the University of Louisville Medical Department, during a brief consolidation of the schools. Following graduation he returned home and began the general practice of medicine with his former preceptor. He remained there for five years, but desiring to practice in a larger community, he moved to Louisville. He married Sallie E. Berry of Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky, in 1877; they had no children....

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Warren, Edward (22 January 1828–16 September 1893), surgeon, medical educator, and journalist, was born in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, the son of William Christian Warren, a physician, and Harriet Alexander. Between 1843 and 1845 he attended the Fairfax Institute in Virginia. He then served a medical apprenticeship under his father. Following this, he enrolled in the medical department of the University of Virginia, where after a year of concentrated study he received his M.D. degree in 1850. Although Virginia’s academic standards were high, its medical department, as was the case with most rural medical schools of the day, was deficient in practical anatomy and clinical instruction. To remedy this, the following year Warren took a second M.D. degree at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, then the center of medical education in the United States. While at Jefferson he developed the idea that morphia would act most efficiently and effectively if administered under the skin, using a lancet and Anel’s syringe. Subsequently, he claimed to have conceived the idea of hypodermic medication....