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Browne, Benjamin Frederick (17 July 1793–23 November 1873), druggist and author, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Benjamin Browne and Elizabeth Andrew, occupations unknown. Browne attended classes beginning in 1797 in a school run by Madame Babbidge. He served as apprentice to apothecary E. S. Lang for five years (1807–1812), immediately after which the outbreak of the War of 1812 destroyed all commerce moving through the port of Salem....

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Marshall, Christopher (06 November 1709–04 May 1797), pharmacist and revolutionary leader, was born in Dublin, Ireland. His parents’ names are unknown. He received a classical education in England and developed an interest in chemistry. Marshall, a Quaker, married Sarah Thompson in 1735; they had three sons. His second marriage to Abigail, a Philadelphia Quaker, ended with her death in 1782. After moving to Philadelphia in 1727, Marshall started a pharmaceutical company. He was a religious man and in 1758 served as one of Philadelphia’s overseers of the poor....

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Rice, Charles (04 October 1841–13 May 1901), pharmacist, journalist, and linguist, was born in Munich, Germany, the son of Austrian parents with the surname of Reis. He claimed to have changed his name to Rice when he came to the United States in 1862. Because Rice was intensely secretive about his personal life, especially his past, few details are known about his family or early education other than that he received intense instruction in classical and modern languages while in Germany and at the age of twelve began a lifelong study of Sanskrit. When family finances became tight, Rice followed the advice of an uncle who had emigrated to the United States and turned to more practical studies of science. On the death of his parents and in the face of continuing economic difficulties, Rice came to the United States, where he joined the U.S. Navy in 1862....