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Gaillard, Edwin Samuel (16 January 1827–02 February 1885), medical educator and editor, was born near Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Edwin Gaillard and Mary White. He received a B.A. from South Carolina College (later the University of South Carolina) in 1845 and an M.D. from the Medical College of the State of South Carolina (now part of the University of South Carolina) in 1854. He then moved to Florida, where he opened a general medical practice. In 1856 he married Jane Marshall Thomas, with whom he had no children. He relocated his practice to New York City the following year but closed it in 1860 after his wife’s death. He then studied medicine for a year in Europe and in 1861 settled in Baltimore, Maryland....

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Oliver Wendell Holmes. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B014846).

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Holmes, Oliver Wendell (29 August 1809–07 October 1894), physician, teacher of anatomy, and writer, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the son of the Reverend Abiel Holmes and Sarah Wendell, Abiel’s second wife. A quintessential Boston Brahmin, Oliver was descended on his mother’s side from the old Boston families of Jackson and Quincy and from early Dutch settlers; ...

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Kelly, Aloysius Oliver Joseph (13 June 1870–23 February 1911), physician, medical educator, and writer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Vincent Kelly, a physician and superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital, and Emma Jane Ferguson. Little is known about his childhood. He received his A.B. degree from LaSalle College, Philadelphia, in 1888 at the age of eighteen, and three years later the school awarded him a Master of Arts degree. After college he enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, and he graduated with an M.D. in 1891. He was then appointed to a one-year residency at the St. Agnes Hospital in Philadelphia. From 1892 to 1894 he studied in Vienna, Heidelberg, Dublin, Prague, and London with such notable physicians as Franz Chvostek, Anton Weichselbaum, and Arnold Paltauf....

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McQuillen, John Hugh (12 February 1826–03 March 1879), dentist, editor, and educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Hugh McQuillen and Martha Scattergood, occupations unknown. He attended the Friends’ School and worked as a youth as a clerk in an importing firm. In 1847 he began the study of medicine and became particularly interested in dentistry. He studied with Elisha Townsend, a noted Philadelphia dentist, and in 1849 went into dental practice. He continued his medical studies and in 1852 received the M.D. from Jefferson Medical College. That same year he married Amelia Donnel Schellenger. They had five children, one of whom died in infancy. From 1852 to 1861 he was associated with Daniel Neall, another well-known Philadelphia dentist, and then returned to private practice....

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Warren, Edward (22 January 1828–16 September 1893), surgeon, medical educator, and journalist, was born in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, the son of William Christian Warren, a physician, and Harriet Alexander. Between 1843 and 1845 he attended the Fairfax Institute in Virginia. He then served a medical apprenticeship under his father. Following this, he enrolled in the medical department of the University of Virginia, where after a year of concentrated study he received his M.D. degree in 1850. Although Virginia’s academic standards were high, its medical department, as was the case with most rural medical schools of the day, was deficient in practical anatomy and clinical instruction. To remedy this, the following year Warren took a second M.D. degree at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, then the center of medical education in the United States. While at Jefferson he developed the idea that morphia would act most efficiently and effectively if administered under the skin, using a lancet and Anel’s syringe. Subsequently, he claimed to have conceived the idea of hypodermic medication....

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White, Frances Emily (07 May 1832–29 December 1903), medical educator and social critic, was born in Andover, New Hampshire, the daughter of Thomas R. White and Mary H. May, farmers. During White’s childhood her family prospered and moved to the neighboring town of Franklin, a newly established mill center on the Merrimack River. White’s father held several town offices and was regarded as an important member of the Congregational church. One of White’s older sisters married Austin Pike, Franklin’s leading attorney and later a U.S. senator. White, who never married, intermittently lived in the Pike household after her parents’ deaths....

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Wood, Horatio C, Jr. (13 January 1841–03 January 1920), physician, educator, and editor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Horatio Curtis Wood, a successful businessman, and Elizabeth Head Bacon. His parents used “C” (without a period) as his middle name, a compromise between Curtis and Charles. That Wood was inconsistent in signing his name, and that one of his sons, who also had a distinguished career in medicine, was named Horatio Charles Wood, Jr., further confused the situation. Wood began his education at age four in a Society of Friends boarding school, and he continued at the Friends Select School in Philadelphia. He traced his initial interests in science to two sources. First, on a visit to the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences in his early teens, Wood convinced the director, ...