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Hays, Isaac (05 July 1796–12 April 1879), physician and editor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Hays, a merchant, and Richea Gratz. A successful merchant in the East India trade, Hays’s father attained considerable wealth and provided his son with an excellent education and introduction to the cultural life of Philadelphia. Raised in the Jewish faith, Hays was for many years a pupil in the Philadelphia grammar school run by the eminent divine and classical scholar Samuel B. Wylie, who later became professor of ancient languages at the University of Pennsylvania. Hays entered the university in 1812 and graduated four years later with a B.A....

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Wells, Samuel Roberts (04 April 1820–13 April 1875), publisher, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, the son of Russell Wells, a farmer (mother’s name unknown). Shortly after his birth the family moved to a farm near Little Sodus Bay on Lake Ontario in Wayne County, New York. Samuel was apprenticed to a tanner and currier, but, planning to study medicine at Yale, he pursued some preliminary work by reading medical texts....

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Whipple, Guy Montrose (12 June 1876–01 August 1941), educational psychologist and editor, was born in Danvers, Massachusetts, the son of John Francis Whipple, a wounded Civil War veteran working as mail carrier, and Cornelia Eliza Hood, a schoolteacher who took up painting in her old age. He received an A.B. from Brown University in 1897, spent a year as assistant in psychology at Clark University, and in 1898 moved to a similar position at Cornell University. In 1901 he married Clarice Johnson Rogers; they had three sons. In 1925 he married Helen Davis, they had one son....

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Wood, Horatio C, Jr. (13 January 1841–03 January 1920), physician, educator, and editor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Horatio Curtis Wood, a successful businessman, and Elizabeth Head Bacon. His parents used “C” (without a period) as his middle name, a compromise between Curtis and Charles. That Wood was inconsistent in signing his name, and that one of his sons, who also had a distinguished career in medicine, was named Horatio Charles Wood, Jr., further confused the situation. Wood began his education at age four in a Society of Friends boarding school, and he continued at the Friends Select School in Philadelphia. He traced his initial interests in science to two sources. First, on a visit to the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences in his early teens, Wood convinced the director, ...