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Crothers, Thomas Davison (21 September 1842–12 January 1918), pioneer physician in the medical treatment of inebriety, temperance advocate, and editor, was born in West Charlton, New York, the son of Robert Crothers and Electra Smith. Members of Crothers’s family had taught surgery and medicine at Edinburgh University since the eighteenth century, and, with this influence, after attending the Fort Edward Seminary, he enrolled in Albany Medical College in 1862. With the outbreak of the Civil War Crothers signed on as a medical cadet at the Ira Harris Military College. Awarded his M.D. in 1865, Crothers continued his studies at Long Island College Hospital until he began his medical practice in West Galway, New York, in 1866. Four years later Crothers left West Galway for Albany, where, at his alma mater, he became assistant to the chair of the practice of medicine, lecturer on hygiene, and instructor in physical diagnosis. In 1875 he married Sarah Walton; the couple had no children. He also took a new position in Binghamton, New York, home of the nation’s first hospital for inebriates, the New York State Inebriate Asylum. There Crothers received his formal introduction to the medical treatment of inebriety. In 1878 he established his own private inebriate asylum in Hartford, Connecticut, the Walnut Hill Asylum (known after 1880 as the Walnut Lodge Hospital)....

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Pember, Phoebe Yates Levy (18 August 1823–04 March 1913), hospital administrator and writer, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the daughter of Jacob Levy, a businessman, and Fanny Yates. Pember was the fourth of seven children in a prosperous Jewish family. Nothing is known of her schooling, although she was evidently well educated and widely read. Sometime in the 1850s, the family moved to Savannah, Georgia; sometime before the Civil War, Phoebe married Thomas Pember of Boston. After her husband died of tuberculosis in July 1861 in Aiken, South Carolina, the childless Pember returned to her parents in Savannah. Dangers associated with the Civil War led the family to seek refuge in Marietta, Georgia, around 1862....