1-10 of 10 results  for:

  • colonial leader x
  • Manufacture and trade x
Clear all

Article

Eaton, Theophilus (1590–08 January 1658), merchant and colonial governor, was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, the son of the Reverend Richard Eaton, vicar of Holy Trinity Church, Coventry, and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). The Reverend Eaton intended his son for the ministry; however, as an adolescent Theophilus found commerce more appealing and in about 1604 began a seven-year London apprenticeship in the wool trade. Following his training Eaton joined the Eastland Company, which was chartered by Elizabeth I in 1579 and granted a virtual monopoly on commerce in the Baltic. Eaton’s business successes assisted him in becoming Eastland’s deputy governor and in receiving a commission as a commercial agent between Denmark’s Christian IV and England’s James I after the onset of the Thirty Years’ War....

Article

Habersham, James ( June 1715?–28 August 1775), planter-merchant in colonial Georgia, royal councilor, and acting governor, was born in Beverly, Yorkshire, England, the son of James Habersham, a dyer and innkeeper, and Elizabeth Sission. His mother died when he was seven; subsequently his father apprenticed him to his uncle, Joseph Habersham, a London merchant. From him he mastered the import trade in hides, indigo, and sugar. By the age of twenty-one he had assumed charge of two sugar-refining houses connected with his uncle’s interests. In 1736 Habersham came under the religious influence of ...

Article

Hamilton, Andrew (?–26 April 1703), merchant, proprietary governor, and organizer of the first intercolonial postal service in English North America, was born in Scotland. Nothing is known of his parents or early life. Hamilton first appears on the pages of history in 1683 as an Edinburgh merchant involved in the recruitment of settlers for the English and Scottish investors who had recently acquired the proprietorship of East Jersey. Hamilton strongly supported the proprietary effort to create an enclave of Scottish settlement in East Jersey that would be made up of large estates controlled by wealthy landholders and worked by indentured servants and tenant farmers. In 1683 Hamilton acquired a one-twentieth proprietary share of East Jersey and dispatched ten indentured servants to work what was to become his 6,000-acre estate in the colony. Hamilton’s services in Scotland to the proprietors led a number of them in 1686 to appoint him as an agent to investigate the conduct of their business affairs in America....

Article

Leisler, Jacob (bap. 31 March 1640), merchant and de facto lieutenant governor of New York, was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, the son of Rev. Jacob Victorian Leisler, minister of the Frankfurt French Reformed congregation, and Susanna Adelheid Wissenbach. The family was of the magisterial class. In 1637 Rev. Leisler fled the imposition of the Inquisition in Spanish-occupied Frankenthal, in which city he was minister to the Huguenot community. He sought refuge in Kreuznach. The following year he was called to be minister of Frankfurt’s French congregation. Because the Lutheran Frankfurt council forbade the practice of the Reformed religion within city walls, the French congregation gathered in the nearby suburb of Bockenheim. Leisler’s youth was thus shaped by his family’s social position, his father’s Calvinist convictions, and the turmoil of the Thirty Years’ War....

Article

Mayhew, Thomas (1593–25 March 1682), New England merchant and proprietor of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, New England merchant and proprietor of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket, was born in St. John the Baptist parish, Tisbury, Wilshire, England, the son of Matthew Mayhew and Alice Barter, farmers. Though his exact date of birth is uncertain, he was baptised on 1 April 1593. Mayhew was an established merchant (mercer) and free commoner when in 1631 he accepted the agency of Matthew Cradock of London to manage properties in Medford, Massachusetts, and to engage in trade and shipbuilding. A man of restless energy, he easily handled his responsibilities, although perhaps not well, also finding time to chair a committee of the General Court on a town dispute, probate a will, advise on docks in Charlestown, and build corn and lumber mills that soon brought “great profit.” He was elected a freeman in 1634. In 1634 or 1635 business with Cradock took him to London, where he also married Jane (Gallion?) Paine, who cared for his son by a previous marriage, ...

Article

Spotswood, Alexander (1676–07 June 1740), lieutenant governor of Virginia and industrial entrepreneur, was born in northern Africa in the city of Tangier, the son of Robert Spotswood, a physician, and Catherine Elliott. The family was staunchly royalist. Alexander’s father was personal physician to the first earl of Middleton, briefly the most powerful politician in Restoration Scotland, but later exiled as governor of Tangier. The earl’s personal physician accompanied him and acted also as physician to the garrison. Alexander was first taken to England at the age of seven. His father died when he was eleven, just before the Glorious Revolution of 1688. After William III had displaced James II, Alexander did not follow the second earl of Middleton into Jacobitism and exile, but chose to make his first career in the British army created by William III to fight his wars against Louis XIV of France. He was commissioned ensign in the earl of Bath’s foot regiment on 20 May 1693. Promoted lieutenant on 1 January 1696, he continued his military career under Queen Anne, fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession under the command of the duke of Marlborough. A captain before 1704, he was wounded at the battle of Blenheim in 1704 and captured at Oudenarde in 1708 but immediately exchanged. He was primarily active in army supply, particularly grain, being lieutenant quartermaster under Lord Cadogan, rising to lieutenant colonel....

Article

Trumbull, Jonathan (12 October 1710–17 August 1785), merchant and governor of Connecticut, was born Jonathan Trumble in Lebanon, Connecticut, the son of Joseph Trumble, a merchant, and Hannah Higley. Jonathan changed the spelling of his name to Trumbull in 1766. After graduating from Harvard in 1727, Trumbull returned to Lebanon and studied for the ministry with the Reverend Solomon Williams. He earned his M.A. from Harvard in 1730 and was licensed by the Windham, Connecticut, Association of Ministers. He preached on probation for a time in nearby Colchester but declined a call in 1732 after his brother’s death created a vacancy in his father’s business. In 1735 he married Faith Robinson of Duxbury, Massachusetts. The couple had six children, including ...

Article

Vaughan, George (13 April 1676–20 November 1724), merchant and lieutenant governor of New Hampshire, was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the son of Major William Vaughan, a Portsmouth merchant, and Margaret Cutt. George grew up in colonial New Hampshire’s most chaotic historical era, when Portsmouth’s frontier settlers were beset with almost constant wars with the French and Indians, proprietary challenges to their land titles, rapid changes in government, and often arbitrary royal officials. As a youth, Vaughan saw his father become wealthy in the timber and fish trades, become embroiled in the proprietary claims of Robert Mason, be both jailed for and the subject of a major land suit ( ...

Article

Wanton, William (15 September 1670– December 1733), merchant and governor of Rhode Island, was born in Scituate, Massachusetts, the son of Edward Wanton, a farmer and shipbuilder, and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). William Wanton grew up in Scituate (then in Plymouth Colony) but in June 1691 defied the father of Ruth Bryant by fleeing with her to Rhode Island, where they were married. There, according to an unlikely apocryphal tale, she abandoned the Presbyterians and he the Quakers, and they decided to go “to the devil together” by becoming Anglicans, that is, they compromised by joining the Anglican church in Newport. It is far more likely that they became Anglicans early in the eighteenth century after the founding of Newport’s Trinity Church. The couple had seven children, most of whom became Anglicans. After his wife’s death, Wanton married Mary Godfrey in 1717, a union that produced no children....

Article

Ward, Samuel (27 May 1725–26 March 1776), farmer, merchant, and governor of Rhode Island, was born in Newport, Rhode Island, the son of Richard Ward and Mary Tillinghast. Ward’s Newport family was wealthy and politically and socially prominent. His father, secretary or recorder of the colony from 1714 to 1732 and governor from 1740 to 1743, was an opponent of the Rhode Island faction that favored paper money. In 1745 Samuel Ward married Anna Ray of Block Island. They had eleven children. After their marriage her father gave the couple a farm at Westerly, in the southwestern corner of the colony. There Ward prospered, expanding his holdings and trading his and his neighbors’ products to Newport and Boston. In 1752, for example, he shipped 2,000 pounds of cheese to Boston....