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Browne, Benjamin Frederick (17 July 1793–23 November 1873), druggist and author, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Benjamin Browne and Elizabeth Andrew, occupations unknown. Browne attended classes beginning in 1797 in a school run by Madame Babbidge. He served as apprentice to apothecary E. S. Lang for five years (1807–1812), immediately after which the outbreak of the War of 1812 destroyed all commerce moving through the port of Salem....

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Craigie, Andrew (22 February 1754–19 September 1819), druggist, entrepreneur, and speculator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Andrew Craigie, a ship captain and merchant, and Elizabeth Gardner. He attended Boston Latin School for an undetermined period starting in 1763; there is no information as to his further education. Indeed, there seems to be no further record of him until 1775, when the Massachusetts Committee of Safety appointed him to take care of medical stores and the Provincial Congress named him “medical commissary and apothecary for the Massachusetts army.” This and his subsequent activity in the Continental army suggest that he had had some background in pharmacy or the wholesale drug business. There is nothing known of Craigie’s background or later activity that would warrant the appellation “Doctor” frequently accorded him....

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Durand, Élie Magloire (25 January 1794–14 August 1873), pharmacist and botanist, was born in Mayenne, France, the son of André Durand, a recorder of deeds; his mother’s name is unknown. After immigrating to the United States, he anglicized his first name to Elias. Durand was educated locally at the collegiate school, displaying an aptitude for chemistry. After deciding to become a pharmacist, he began a four-year apprenticeship in 1808 with a distinguished pharmacist and scientist; he then continued his education in Paris, attending the lectures of such notable scientists as Louis Jacques Thenard, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, and Louis Lefèvre-Gineau. After receiving his commission as an assistant pharmacist (1813), he served with the Fifth Corps of Napoleon’s army, seeing action at the battles of Lützen, Bautzen, Hanau, Katzbach, and Leipzig....

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Aaron Henry. Speaking before the Credentials Committee at the Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, NJ. Photograph by Warren K. Leffler, 1964. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-U9- 12470E-28).

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Henry, Aaron E. (02 July 1922–19 May 1997), civil rights activist, politician, and pharmacist, was born in Dublin, in the Mississippi Delta. His sharecropping parents, Ed and Mattie Henry, strove to educate Aaron and his sister and shield them from the hardships of farm and manual labor. They moved to neighboring Coahoma County so that Henry could attend the segregated Coahoma Agricultural High School. Indeed his political awakening began in high school, where a few earnest teachers bravely schooled their students on civics and civil rights. With the coaxing of one young educator, Aaron and his classmates joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) as at-large members in 1941....

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Hurty, John Newell (21 February 1852–27 March 1925), pharmacist and sanitarian, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, the son of Josiah Hurty, a teacher and school superintendent, and Irene Walker. In 1869, while still in high school in Paris, Illinois, Eli Lilly, as Hurty was later to write, “beguiled” him into the “drug business,” and he became an apprentice in Binford and Lilly’s Red Front Drug Store. There he learned chemistry as well as pharmacy in 1871–1872, and, with the encouragement of Lilly, he studied at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. In 1873 Hurty followed Lilly to Indianapolis, where Lilly began to manufacture pharmaceuticals in partnership with Dr. John Johnston. Hurty was responsible for determining the purity of raw materials and assaying finished products. When the firm of Johnston and Lilly dissolved in 1879, Hurty, who had in 1877 married Johnston’s daughter, Ethel (with whom he had two children), opened his own pharmacy in Indianapolis. He became a prominent pharmacist, a founding member in 1882 of the Indiana Pharmaceutical Association and its president in 1890. Attached to his shop he developed an analytical chemistry laboratory and devoted considerable time to the assaying of items such as water, coal, and wine and did some work in forensic toxicology. In 1891 Hurty was appointed chemist and toxicologist at the Indianapolis City Hospital. He remained active in his pharmacy and laboratory until he became secretary of the Indiana State Board of Health in 1896. He then turned over the management of the pharmacy to an assistant and in 1901 sold him his entire interest....

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Kiss, Max (09 November 1882–22 June 1967), pharmacist and businessman, was born in Kisvárda, Hungary, the son of Illes Kiss, a lumber merchant, and Regina Schwartz. In 1897, after finishing high school, Kiss left home and came to the United States via Hamburg, Germany. In later years he would recount that he had heard from a cousin that “everyone in America shoveled gold right from the streets,” and Kiss wanted to shovel....

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Maisch, John Michael (30 January 1831–10 September 1893), pharmacist and teacher, was born in Hanau, Hesse, Germany, the son of Conrad Maisch, a retailer of very modest means, and Agnese Louise Liebtreu. Educated in the local schools and taken under the wings of teachers who recognized his special abilities and gave him private tutelage, he gained free admittance to the Oberrealschule (a nonclassical upper high school). He studied languages, botany, zoology, mineralogy, and chemistry and was introduced to the microscope. Ill health, however, thwarted his hope to attend a Gymnasium to pursue a university education. He turned his attention to pharmacy, but involvement with the revolutionary Turners gymnast club of Hanau led to his capture at Sinsheim in 1849. He was imprisoned but escaped with the help of friends and fled to the United States. He arrived in Baltimore in September 1849....

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Marshall, Christopher (06 November 1709–04 May 1797), pharmacist and revolutionary leader, was born in Dublin, Ireland. His parents’ names are unknown. He received a classical education in England and developed an interest in chemistry. Marshall, a Quaker, married Sarah Thompson in 1735; they had three sons. His second marriage to Abigail, a Philadelphia Quaker, ended with her death in 1782. After moving to Philadelphia in 1727, Marshall started a pharmaceutical company. He was a religious man and in 1758 served as one of Philadelphia’s overseers of the poor....

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Parrish, Edward (31 May 1822–09 September 1872), pharmacist, teacher, and college president, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Parrish, a prominent physician, and Susanna Cox. He attended the Friends’ School and then was apprenticed to his pharmacist brother, Dillwyn Parrish. During his apprenticeship he attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, graduating in 1842. In 1843 Parrish opened his own drugstore in Philadelphia. In 1848 he married Margaret Hunt, with whom he had five children....

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Procter, William, Jr. (03 May 1817–09 February 1874), pharmacist and educator, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Isaac Procter, a hardware store owner, and Rebecca Farquahar. (The junior was added to distinguish him from an uncle named William.) His father died in 1820, putting the family in financial difficulties. William attended Friends schools into his teenage years, but the sudden illness of his brother-in-law, the proprietor of a cooper’s shop, forced him to abandon formal education. The work of the cooper’s shop proved to be too hard on William’s delicate constitution, and he requested to be apprenticed as an apothecary. In 1831 he entered the shop of Henry Zollickoffer in Philadelphia and started his forty-year career in pharmacy....

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Rice, Charles (04 October 1841–13 May 1901), pharmacist, journalist, and linguist, was born in Munich, Germany, the son of Austrian parents with the surname of Reis. He claimed to have changed his name to Rice when he came to the United States in 1862. Because Rice was intensely secretive about his personal life, especially his past, few details are known about his family or early education other than that he received intense instruction in classical and modern languages while in Germany and at the age of twelve began a lifelong study of Sanskrit. When family finances became tight, Rice followed the advice of an uncle who had emigrated to the United States and turned to more practical studies of science. On the death of his parents and in the face of continuing economic difficulties, Rice came to the United States, where he joined the U.S. Navy in 1862....

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Walgreen, Charles Rudolph (09 October 1873–11 December 1939), pharmacist and chain store executive, was born near Galesburg, Illinois, the son of Charles Walgreen, a successful farmer and real estate broker, and Ellen Olson. Walgreen’s parents were Swedish immigrants. The family moved to Dixon, Illinois, in 1887. Walgreen’s start in the drugstore business came by accident. While working in a shoe factory in Dixon he cut off the top joint of a middle finger. His doctor—frustrated that the physically active Walgreen would not let his hand heal properly—arranged for him to apprentice at a local drugstore in hopes of keeping him off the baseball diamond. Walgreen stayed with the job for a year and a half, when he was fired or quit during a disagreement with the owner....