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Abel, John Jacob (19 May 1857–26 May 1938), pharmacologist, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of George Abel and Mary Becker, farmers. His mother died of puerperal fever while giving birth to her eighth child when Abel was fifteen. After graduating as the top student in the Cleveland high school system, Abel enrolled at the University of Michigan in 1876. His education was interrupted at the end of his third year for financial reasons, and he spent the next three years as a teacher, principal, and then superintendent of schools in La Porte, Indiana. He met his future wife, Mary Hinman, in La Porte, where she was a high school teacher....

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Auer, John (30 March 1875–30 April 1948), pharmacologist and physiologist, was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Henry Auer, a German-born brewer, and Luise Hummel. After secondary education in church and public schools in Chicago, he received his B.S. from the University of Michigan in 1898 and his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1902. He spent a year as a medical house officer (intern) at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and in 1903 he moved to the brand new Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which became Rockefeller University in 1965....

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Brodie, Bernard Beryl (07 August 1907?–27 February 1989), pharmacologist, was born in Liverpool, England, the son of Samuel Brodie and Esther Ginsberg. Some sources give his birth year as 1909. When Brodie was four, the family moved to Ottawa, Canada, where his father owned a men’s furnishings store. Brodie attended public schools, recalling later that he was a poor student and was even expelled for insubordination before completing high school....

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Browne, Benjamin Frederick (17 July 1793–23 November 1873), druggist and author, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Benjamin Browne and Elizabeth Andrew, occupations unknown. Browne attended classes beginning in 1797 in a school run by Madame Babbidge. He served as apprentice to apothecary E. S. Lang for five years (1807–1812), immediately after which the outbreak of the War of 1812 destroyed all commerce moving through the port of Salem....

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Craigie, Andrew (22 February 1754–19 September 1819), druggist, entrepreneur, and speculator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Andrew Craigie, a ship captain and merchant, and Elizabeth Gardner. He attended Boston Latin School for an undetermined period starting in 1763; there is no information as to his further education. Indeed, there seems to be no further record of him until 1775, when the Massachusetts Committee of Safety appointed him to take care of medical stores and the Provincial Congress named him “medical commissary and apothecary for the Massachusetts army.” This and his subsequent activity in the Continental army suggest that he had had some background in pharmacy or the wholesale drug business. There is nothing known of Craigie’s background or later activity that would warrant the appellation “Doctor” frequently accorded him....

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Durand, Élie Magloire (25 January 1794–14 August 1873), pharmacist and botanist, was born in Mayenne, France, the son of André Durand, a recorder of deeds; his mother’s name is unknown. After immigrating to the United States, he anglicized his first name to Elias. Durand was educated locally at the collegiate school, displaying an aptitude for chemistry. After deciding to become a pharmacist, he began a four-year apprenticeship in 1808 with a distinguished pharmacist and scientist; he then continued his education in Paris, attending the lectures of such notable scientists as Louis Jacques Thenard, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, and Louis Lefèvre-Gineau. After receiving his commission as an assistant pharmacist (1813), he served with the Fifth Corps of Napoleon’s army, seeing action at the battles of Lützen, Bautzen, Hanau, Katzbach, and Leipzig....

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Graham, Helen Tredway (21 July 1890–04 April 1971), pharmacologist, was born in Dubuque, Iowa, the daughter of Harry Ennis Tredway, a merchant, and Marian McConnell. Graham attended local public schools and then traveled east to matriculate at Bryn Mawr. First in her class at this college, Graham received a B.S. in 1911 and an M.A. in chemistry in 1912. She then won a fellowship to pursue postgraduate study abroad. Her year at Georg August University in Göttingen, Germany, cemented her interest in organic chemistry. When Tredway returned to the United States in 1913, she entered the University of Chicago’s graduate program in chemistry, from which she received a Ph.D. in 1915. While at Chicago, she met young physician Evarts Graham, and the two were married in 1916. Shortly thereafter they moved to Mason City, Iowa, where Evarts commenced practice; they had two children....

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Hatcher, Robert Anthony (06 February 1868–01 April 1944), pharmacologist, was born in New Madrid, Missouri, the son of Richard Hardaway Hatcher, an attorney, and Harriet Hinton Marr. The family had lost much in the Civil War, so Robert was raised in the home of his uncle Robert Marr, a prominent judge. He developed an interest in pharmacy and attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, where he received his graduate in pharmacy degree in 1889. After spending five years working in a pharmacy in New Orleans, Hatcher enrolled in the Tulane University Medical School, where he obtained his M.D. in 1898. In 1899 he accepted a position teaching materia medica at the Cleveland School of Pharmacy....

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Aaron Henry. Speaking before the Credentials Committee at the Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, NJ. Photograph by Warren K. Leffler, 1964. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-U9- 12470E-28).

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Henry, Aaron E. (02 July 1922–19 May 1997), civil rights activist, politician, and pharmacist, was born in Dublin, in the Mississippi Delta. His sharecropping parents, Ed and Mattie Henry, strove to educate Aaron and his sister and shield them from the hardships of farm and manual labor. They moved to neighboring Coahoma County so that Henry could attend the segregated Coahoma Agricultural High School. Indeed his political awakening began in high school, where a few earnest teachers bravely schooled their students on civics and civil rights. With the coaxing of one young educator, Aaron and his classmates joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) as at-large members in 1941....

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Hirschfelder, Arthur Douglas (29 September 1879–11 October 1942), pharmacologist and cardiologist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Joseph Oakland Hirschfelder, a physician, and Clara Honigsberg. Joseph Hirschfelder, who was professor of medicine at Cooper Medical College (later Stanford University School of Medicine), had done postgraduate studies in Germany and was active in clinical research. His example influenced the choice of career of his son Arthur, who greatly admired his father....

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Hunt, Reid (20 April 1870–10 March 1948), pharmacologist, was born in Martinsville, Ohio, the son of Milton L. Hunt, a banker, and Sarah E. Wright, a schoolteacher. His parents were Quakers who valued education and literature. Hunt’s interests focused early on science as he studied chemistry with the town pharmacist. After graduating from high school at age sixteen, he spent one year at Wilmington College and one at the University of Ohio at Athens. He completed his undergraduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in 1891....

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Hurty, John Newell (21 February 1852–27 March 1925), pharmacist and sanitarian, was born in Lebanon, Ohio, the son of Josiah Hurty, a teacher and school superintendent, and Irene Walker. In 1869, while still in high school in Paris, Illinois, Eli Lilly, as Hurty was later to write, “beguiled” him into the “drug business,” and he became an apprentice in Binford and Lilly’s Red Front Drug Store. There he learned chemistry as well as pharmacy in 1871–1872, and, with the encouragement of Lilly, he studied at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. In 1873 Hurty followed Lilly to Indianapolis, where Lilly began to manufacture pharmaceuticals in partnership with Dr. John Johnston. Hurty was responsible for determining the purity of raw materials and assaying finished products. When the firm of Johnston and Lilly dissolved in 1879, Hurty, who had in 1877 married Johnston’s daughter, Ethel (with whom he had two children), opened his own pharmacy in Indianapolis. He became a prominent pharmacist, a founding member in 1882 of the Indiana Pharmaceutical Association and its president in 1890. Attached to his shop he developed an analytical chemistry laboratory and devoted considerable time to the assaying of items such as water, coal, and wine and did some work in forensic toxicology. In 1891 Hurty was appointed chemist and toxicologist at the Indianapolis City Hospital. He remained active in his pharmacy and laboratory until he became secretary of the Indiana State Board of Health in 1896. He then turned over the management of the pharmacy to an assistant and in 1901 sold him his entire interest....

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King, John (01 January 1813–19 June 1893), physician and pharmacologist, was born in New York City, the son of Harman King, a custom house official, and Marguerite La Porte. He completed his undergraduate education (it is not known which college he attended) mostly to placate his parents’ desire that he enter some sort of commercial pursuit; however, he was more interested in a scientific career and while in school read extensively about physics, chemistry, and botany. In 1833 he married Charlotte Armington, with whom he had eight children. In 1835 he delivered a series of lectures on topics related to the earth’s magnetism at the Mechanic’s Institute of New York and the New Bedford (Mass.) Lyceum....

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Kiss, Max (09 November 1882–22 June 1967), pharmacist and businessman, was born in Kisvárda, Hungary, the son of Illes Kiss, a lumber merchant, and Regina Schwartz. In 1897, after finishing high school, Kiss left home and came to the United States via Hamburg, Germany. In later years he would recount that he had heard from a cousin that “everyone in America shoveled gold right from the streets,” and Kiss wanted to shovel....

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Kraemer, Henry (22 July 1868–09 September 1924), pharmacognosist and teacher, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of John Henry Kraemer, a merchant, and Caroline Fuchs. Orphaned at an early age, he attended Girard College from 1877 to 1883 and then spent five years as an apprentice in the pharmacy of Clement B. Lowe. In 1889 he received the graduate in pharmacy degree (Ph.G.) from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. During his senior year at the college and the year thereafter, he was assistant in general chemistry to Professor Samuel P. Sadtler at the University of Pennsylvania....

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Krayer, Otto Hermann (22 October 1899–18 March 1982), pharmacologist, was born in Köndringen, Baden, Germany, the son of Hermann Krayer, an innkeeper, and Frieda Berta Wolfsperger. Early in his life Krayer’s intellectual gifts attracted the attention of the schoolmaster, who persuaded his parents to continue his education at the six-year middle school in Emmendengen. Since World War I was in progress, Krayer entered the army and was sent to the western front; shortly before the armistice, he was wounded. While recovering, he completed the university entrance requirements, and in 1919 he enrolled in the University of Freiburg medical school. In 1920 he transferred to the medical school at the University of Munich. In 1922 he returned to the University of Freiburg for clinical studies. Bored with the didactic lectures, Krayer sought intellectual stimulation and undertook a project on the comparative anatomy of the amphibian kidney under Wilhelm von Möllendorf. The lectures in pharmacology from Paul Trendelenberg impressed Krayer, and after completing his formal course he spent part of 1925 working in Trendelenberg’s department. In 1926 he received his M.D. degree for his dissertation on apocodeine. He then began a career in pharmacology as Trendelenberg’s assistant. When Trendelenberg moved to Berlin, Krayer followed and rapidly advanced through the ranks from Oberassistant to Privatdocent. When Trendelenberg became seriously ill, Krayer assumed full responsibility for the department, and upon his chief’s death in 1931 he was made acting head and the following year professor extraordinarius of pharmacology and toxicology. Because of the heavy teaching and administrative loads, there was no time for research. Krayer was also left with the task of completing and publishing the third edition of Trendelenberg’s textbook of pharmacology as well as the second volume of his ...

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Loewi, Otto (03 June 1873–25 December 1961), pharmacologist, was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the son of Jacob Loewi, a wine merchant, and Anna Willstädter. After spending his early years at a family home in the Hardt Mountains, Loewi entered the Frankfurt gymnasium at age nine. He found mathematics and physics difficult but excelled in the humanities and initially desired to be an art historian. At the urging of his parents, however, he decided to study medicine and in 1891 entered the University of Strasbourg. There Loewi was influenced by such greats as Gustave Schwalbe in anatomy, Bernhard Naunyn in medicine and experimental pathology, and Oswald Schmiedeberg in pharmacology. Loewi’s research for his dissertation was directed by Schmiedeberg and was concerned with the effects of hydrocyanic acid, arsenic, and phosphorus on the isolated heart of the frog....

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MacNider, William De Berniere (25 June 1881–31 May 1951), physician and medical educator, was born in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the son of Virginius St. Clair MacNider, a physician, and Sophia Beatty Mallett. MacNider was keenly interested in natural history and science during his childhood, and the university environment at Chapel Hill undoubtedly strengthened his desire for a career in the biological sciences. After attending public schools in Chapel Hill, he enrolled at the University of North Carolina in 1898. His father and grandfather were both physicians, and their influence probably contributed to his choice of a medical career; while an undergraduate, he resolved to become a medical researcher. His abilities were soon recognized by the faculty, and he was hired during his graduate study years as an assistant in biology from 1899 to 1900, as assistant in anatomy from 1900 to 1902, and as assistant in clinical diagnosis from 1902 until 1905. MacNider graduated in 1903 with the first class of the University of North Carolina Medical School to receive the M.D. degree. He subsequently received additional research and clinical training at the University of Chicago and at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. During these formative years MacNider benefited significantly from the mentorship of such prominent biologists and medical scientists as ...

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Maisch, John Michael (30 January 1831–10 September 1893), pharmacist and teacher, was born in Hanau, Hesse, Germany, the son of Conrad Maisch, a retailer of very modest means, and Agnese Louise Liebtreu. Educated in the local schools and taken under the wings of teachers who recognized his special abilities and gave him private tutelage, he gained free admittance to the Oberrealschule (a nonclassical upper high school). He studied languages, botany, zoology, mineralogy, and chemistry and was introduced to the microscope. Ill health, however, thwarted his hope to attend a Gymnasium to pursue a university education. He turned his attention to pharmacy, but involvement with the revolutionary Turners gymnast club of Hanau led to his capture at Sinsheim in 1849. He was imprisoned but escaped with the help of friends and fled to the United States. He arrived in Baltimore in September 1849....