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Berry, George Packer (29 December 1898–05 October 1986), immunologist and medical educator, was born in Troy, New York, the son of the Reverend George Titus Berry and Carrie Electa Packer. Following preparatory education at the Hill School in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, he attended Princeton University, from which he received an A.B. with the highest honors in biology in 1921. After obtaining his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1925, Berry trained as a house officer at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1925–1927) and was afterwards assistant resident physician (1927–1928) and instructor in medicine at the Johns Hopkins Medical School (1928–1929). He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1929, where he was assistant and later associate; he also served as assistant resident physician at the hospital of the Rockefeller Institute. At Rockefeller he worked with such well-known investigators as ...

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Friend, Charlotte (11 March 1921–07 January 1987), immunologist and cell biologist, was born in New York City, the daughter of Russian-Jewish immigrants Morris Friend, a businessman, and Cecelia Wolpin, a pharmacist. Friend’s father died when she was three years old, and her mother was left with four young children to raise during the depression. Friend took advantage of the many free cultural and educational advantages that New York offered and developed a wide-ranging, lifelong interest in art, music, and science. Following graduation from Hunter College of the City of New York in 1944, she enlisted in the U.S. Navy and served as an officer in hematology laboratories in California and Florida. When World War II ended, she enrolled as a graduate student at Yale University with the financial assistance of the G.I. Bill. She received her Ph.D. in bacteriology in 1950....

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Hirsch, James Gerald (31 October 1922–25 May 1987), physician and biomedical research scientist, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Mack J. Hirsch, a merchant, and Henrietta B. Schiffman. Hirsch was raised in Pinckneyville, Illinois, graduating from the coal-mining town’s one-room grammar school. He then attended Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois, before beginning undergraduate study at Yale University at the age of sixteen. During his freshman year Hirsch injured his knee playing basketball, which restricted him to scholarly pursuits, including editing the ...

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Landsteiner, Karl (14 June 1868–26 June 1943), immunologist and pathologist, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Leopold Landsteiner, a journalist and newspaper publisher, and Fanny Hess. He received an M.D. from the University of Vienna in 1891, then spent three years studying chemistry at the Universities of Zurich, Würzburg, and Munich. In 1894 he returned to the University of Vienna and for two years worked as an assistant in the Second Medical University Clinic and the First Surgical University Clinic. In 1896 he became an assistant at the University of Vienna’s Institute of Hygiene and began experimenting with the effects of immune blood serum on bacteria cultures. His interest in the nascent field of immunology led him to transfer two years later to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy because its director encouraged him to pursue his work in immunology....

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Sabin, Albert Bruce (26 August 1906–03 March 1993), physician, scientist, and research immunologist, was born near Bialystok, Russia (now Poland), the son of Jacob Sabin and Tillie Krugman, silk weavers. Sabin immigrated with his family to the United States in 1919, settling first in Patterson, New Jersey. His collegiate career began with the study of dentistry at New York University, but ...

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Edward L. Lach, Jr.

Samter, Max (03 March 1908–09 February 1999), immunologist, was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Paul Samter, a physician, and Claire Rawicz Samter. After studying at the Universities of Freiburg (1926) and Innsbruck (1928) and completing an internship at the Medizinische Universitätsklinik der Charité in Berlin (1931–1933), he received his medical degree from the University of Berlin in 1933. Samter began practicing medicine in the Berlin-Karow area, typically visiting his patients on a BMW motorcycle. The early years of his medical career coincided with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler. Although Samter was initially “curious” as to how Hitler's regime would evolve, it was soon clear that life as a Jew under the new order would not be pleasant. By writing a series of short novels that satirized the Nazis, he drew the attention of authorities, but he survived because of his friendship with a group of German storm troopers who shared his love of motorcycling and who gave him advance warning of periodic raids by the Gestapo....