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Adler, Alfred (06 February 1870–28 May 1937), physician and psychological theorist, was born in Rudolfsheim, near Vienna, Austria, the son of Leopold Adler, a grain merchant, and Pauline Beer. Adler was born into a lower middle-class, religiously nonobservant, and ethnically assimilated Jewish family in Austria. The death of a close younger brother in early childhood and Adler’s own near-death from illness the following year, at the age of five, seem to have inspired his interest in a medical career. A mediocre student, he attended several Viennese private schools and then began study at the University of Vienna in the fall of 1888....

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Ainsworth, Mary (01 December 1913–21 March 1999), developmental psychologist, who devised an experimental procedure called the Strange Situation to investigate attachment patterns in young children, was born Mary Dinsmore Salter in Glendale, Ohio, the daughter of Charles Salter, a successful businessman, and Mary Dinsmore Salter. She spent most of her childhood in Toronto, Canada, where she attended the University of Toronto, which awarded her a B.A. (1935), an M.A. (1936), and a Ph.D. (1939), the last two for work at the Department of Psychology. She mainly worked with the child psychologist William E. Blatz, whose security theory, research on children's emotional development, and use of naturalistic observation methods inspired her subsequent work on attachment. Mary Salter was a lecturer at the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto from 1939 until 1942, when she was commissioned in the Canadian Women's Army Corps, attaining the rank of major. In 1946 she returned to the University of Toronto as assistant professor and further developed her psychodiagnostic skills (co-authoring a book on the evaluation of results obtained with the Rorschach inkblot test in the process). In 1950 she married Leonard Ainsworth, a graduate student in psychology, and moved with him to London, England. There, she worked with the psychoanalytically trained child psychiatrist John Bowlby at the Tavistock Institute. At that time, Bowlby was investigating the detrimental effects on young children of being placed in institutions providing foster care and of prolonged separation from primary caregivers in general. Breaking with then-prevalent psychoanalytic assumptions, Bowlby intended to investigate the effects of actual life events on the course of child development. Ainsworth and Bowbly initiated a lifelong collaborative association; Ainsworth contributed two chapters to Bowlby's seminal ...

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Alexander, Franz Gabriel (22 January 1891–08 March 1964), psychoanalyst, was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Bernard Alexander, a college professor, and Regina Brössler. After receiving his B.A. from Budapest’s Humanistic Gymnasium in 1908, he briefly studied archaeology and philosophy at the University of Budapest before enrolling in its medical school. In 1910 he became a research associate in physiology at the university’s Institute for Experimental Pathology, where he conducted experiments correlating the work of the brain to its metabolism. In 1913 he received his M.D. and joined the university’s Institute for Hygiene as a research associate in bacteriology. In 1914 he was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian army and placed in charge of a Red Cross medical unit. Three years later he took command of a bacteriological field laboratory assigned to prevent malaria on the Italian front and was awarded the Merit Cross for Distinguished Service. After World War I he returned to the university as a research and clinical associate in psychiatry and neurology in its neuropsychiatric clinic....

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Allport, Floyd Henry (22 August 1890–15 October 1978), psychologist, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the son of John Edward Allport, a small businessman and country doctor, and Nellie Edith Wise, a former schoolteacher described by her son as a rather pious woman. Allport grew up in Indiana and Ohio, where he attended many camp meetings and revivals. He received an A.B. from Harvard University in 1914 and two years later began graduate work there in anthropology, later shifting to psychology. When the country entered World War I, he joined the army. Shortly before his field artillery unit left for France in October 1917, Allport married Ethel Margaret Hudson, a nurse; the couple had three children....

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Allport, Gordon Willard (11 November 1897–09 October 1967), psychologist, was born in Montezuma, Indiana, the son of John Edwards Allport, a physician, and Nellie Wise. He grew up in Cleveland, Ohio, and, following the example of his older brother Floyd Henry Allport, who also became an eminent psychologist, he attended Harvard University. As an undergraduate, he concentrated on both psychology and social ethics (the predecessor of sociology at Harvard), and he spent much of his spare time in social service during World War I. Upon his graduation in 1919, he spent a year teaching English and sociology at Robert College in Constantinople (now Boğaçızı University in Istanbul). Returning to Harvard, he continued to be influenced by his brother Floyd, then an instructor, and by Herbert Langfeld, who encouraged him to follow his own sense of direction. Allport received his Ph.D. in psychology in 1922....

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Angell, James Rowland (08 May 1869–04 March 1949), academic psychologist and fourteenth president of Yale University, was born in Burlington, Vermont, the son of James Burrill Angell, president of the University of Vermont and later the president of the University of Michigan, and Sarah Swope Caswell, daughter of ...

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Babcock, James Woods (11 August 1856–03 March 1922), psychiatrist, was born in Chester, South Carolina, the son of Sidney E. Babcock, a physician, and Margaret Woods. He graduated from Harvard College in 1882 and received an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1886. He served as assistant physician at McLean Hospital for the Insane in Somerville, Massachusetts, from 1887 until 1891, when he was appointed superintendent of the South Carolina State Lunatic Asylum in Columbia....

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Baldwin, James Mark (12 January 1861–08 November 1934), psychologist and philosopher, was born in Columbia, South Carolina, the son of Cyrus Hull Baldwin, a businessman and sometime federal official, and Lydia Eunice Ford. Baldwin entered Princeton as a sophomore in 1881. There, under President ...

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Beach, Frank Ambrose, Jr. (13 April 1911–15 June 1988), psychologist and educator, was born in Emporia, Kansas, the son of Frank Ambrose Beach, professor of music, and Bertha Robinson. He received a B.S. in education in 1932 from the Kansas State Teachers College in Emporia, where his father taught. Although he had already developed an interest in psychology, he planned to be a high school English teacher. Because of the depression, however, Beach was unable to find a job and so continued in school at Emporia, receiving an M.S. in psychology in 1933. His thesis project was a search for color vision in rats....

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Bell, Luther V. (20 December 1806–11 February 1862), psychiatrist and founding member of the American Psychiatric Association, was born in Francestown, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, the son of Samuel Bell, a lawyer, governor of New Hampshire, and U.S. senator, and Mehitable Dana. After his mother’s death in August 1810, Bell spent his early years with his paternal grandparents in Londonderry (now Derry), New Hampshire....

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Bender, Lauretta (09 August 1897–04 January 1987), child psychiatrist, researcher, and educator, was born in Butte, Montana, the daughter of John Bender, a lawyer, and Katherine Irvine. Her father had moved to Montana to seek business opportunities with copper companies. Disappointed by failures, the Benders moved to Washington State and then to Hollywood, California. Bender repeated first grade three times because she suffered from a form of dyslexia. Her parents and teachers at first thought she was mentally defective but realized that she could learn by listening as well as by reading....

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Berne, Eric (10 May 1910–15 July 1970), psychiatrist, was born Eric Lennard Bernstein in Montreal, Quebec, the son of David Hillel Bernstein, a general physician, and Sara Gordon Bernstein, a writer and editor. When Eric was eleven, his father died from tuberculosis, leaving his mother to provide for him and his younger sister. Eric studied mathematics and physics at McGill University, where he graduated with a B.A. in 1931. The intense playfulness that would later characterize Berne's writing and work was evident in his youth; as an undergraduate he wrote for several McGill newspapers under the pseudonyms Lennard Gandalac, Ramsbottom Horseley, and Cynical St. Cyr, a pen name that reappeared in his adult life as Cyprian St. Cyr. Under the pen name Lennard Gandalac, Esq., he failed to publish a novel, ...

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Bettelheim, Bruno (28 August 1903–13 March 1990), therapist, educator, and author, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Anton Bettelheim, a lumber merchant, and Pauline Seidler. Following his father’s death in 1926, he dropped out of the university to take over the family firm. Although successful in business, he re-enrolled ten years later to become, in February 1938, one of the last Jews to obtain a Ph.D. from Vienna University before World War II. While he was a philosophy student, aesthetics was his main subject, but he also studied psychology under ...

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Bibring, Grete Lehner (11 January 1899–10 August 1977), psychoanalyst, was born in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Moritz Lehner, a businessman, and Victoria Stengel. She attended the Humanistic Gymnasium for Girls, where she became fluent in Greek and Latin. She first learned of the work of Sigmund Freud at age sixteen in a psychology class at the Gymnasium. On the way home from school that day she purchased two of his books....

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Bingham, Walter Van Dyke (20 October 1880–07 July 1952), psychologist, was born in Swan Lake City, Iowa, the son of Lemuel Rothwell Bingham, a merchant and mining investor, and Martha Evarts Tracy. Bingham entered college at the University of Kansas at sixteen but transferred after a year to Beloit College, where he discovered the new experimental psychology. Bingham learned how to test sensory and motor abilities under Guy Allen Tawney, a student of Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the psychological research laboratory. After graduating in 1901, Bingham taught high school math and physics before enrolling in the University of Chicago’s psychology program....

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Blumer, George Alder (25 May 1857–25 April 1940), psychiatrist, was born in Sunderland, England, the son of Luke Blumer, a physician, and Mary Jane Bone. After an excellent education in the classics and foreign languages at schools in England, Germany, and France, he attended the University of Edinburgh as a medical student in 1874–1875 and completed his medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1879. He later returned to Edinburgh for a year of postgraduate training in 1884–1885. In 1880 he obtained a post as assistant physician at the Utica (N.Y.) State Hospital for the Insane, one of the best-known psychiatric asylums in the country. He also joined the staff of the ...

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Boring, Edwin Garrigues (23 October 1886–01 July 1968), psychologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Edwin McCurdy Boring, a pharmacist, and Elizabeth Garrigues. Boring was reared in cramped quarters above the family drugstore and was not allowed to play with other children. He grew up with an intense desire to escape the stifling confines of the Moravian-Quaker household in which he was viewed as a problem child because of his hyperactivity. Although kept out of school until the age of nine and physically awkward, Boring excelled at the Friends Select School and found electrical engineering first an exciting hobby and then a rationale for escaping his father’s hope that he would follow him into the pharmacy. Boring entered Cornell in 1904 and earned his M.E. in 1908, but he struggled to earn ordinary grades. He quit his first job with the Bethlehem Steel Company when offered a promotion, fearing that he might remain an engineer for the rest of his life. An elective psychology course at Cornell, taught by the charismatic ...

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Brigham, Carl Campbell (04 May 1890–24 January 1943), educational psychologist, was born in Marlboro, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Francis Brigham and Ida Campbell, occupations unknown. Brigham did not become a serious student until his junior year at Princeton University, when he became deeply interested in experimental psychology. After completing two years of psychology course work in one, he spent much of his senior year performing experiments in Professor ...

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A. A. Brill. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B03153).

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Brill, A. A. (12 October 1874–02 March 1948), psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, was born Abraham Arden Brill in Kanczuga, Galicia, in the Austro-Hungarian empire, the son of Philip Brill, a noncommissioned commissary officer, and Esther Seitelbach. His parents were pious and provincial Jews with traditional expectations for their son. Brill found these stifling and at fifteen he fled to the United States, arriving destitute and alone in 1889. With fierce ambition and through hard work Brill rose out of the Lower East Side ghetto in New York City where he worked at diverse, petty jobs to fulfill his father’s wish that he become both an educated man and a doctor. Although Brill could not afford to complete his course work at the City College of New York, where he had started his studies at night, he managed to educate himself in several languages, in the classics, and in philosophy, accomplishments in which he took pride throughout his life. He finally received a Ph.B. from New York University in 1901 and a medical degree from Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1903. In many ways, however, his real education in his destined métier had not yet begun....