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Clark, Mamie (18 April 1917–11 August 1983), psychologist and community mental health pioneer, was born Mamie Katherine Phipps in Hot Springs, Arkansas, one of two children and the only daughter of Harold H. Phipps, a prominent physician and resort owner, and Katie Florence Phipps. She described her upbringing in the Jim Crow South as largely happy and secure despite racial tensions and the economic privations of the Great Depression....

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Kate Wittenstein and Benjamin Harris

Hinkle, Beatrice Moses (10 October 1874–28 February 1953), psychoanalyst and feminist, was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Benjamin Frederick Moses, a physician, and Elizabeth Bechley Van Geisen. She was educated at home and in 1892 married Walter Scott Hinkle, an assistant district attorney. They had two children. Her desire to study law met with her husband’s derision, and she enrolled instead at Cooper Medical College, later part of Stanford University, where she received her M.D. in 1899. That same year her husband died, and Hinkle became the city physician of San Francisco, the first woman to hold such a public health post....

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Leta Stetter Hollingworth. Courtesy of the Nebraska State Historical Society.

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Hollingworth, Leta Anna Stetter (25 May 1886–27 November 1939), psychologist and feminist, was born in a dugout near Chadron, Nebraska, the daughter of John G. Stetter and Margaret Elinor Danley. Her father, a fun-loving but irresponsible Virginian of German descent, worked as a peddler, entertainer, and itinerant cowboy. Her mother, the well-educated daughter of a neighboring Scotch-Irish farm family, died in 1890, leaving three girls to be reared by their maternal grandparents. At twelve Leta and her sisters moved to Valentine, Nebraska, to live with their father and his new wife, a troubled woman who made life a “fiery furnace.”...

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Levine, Lena (17 May 1903–09 January 1965), gynecologist, psychiatrist, and pioneer of the birth control movement, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Morris H. Levine, a clothing manufacturer, and Sophie Levine. Her parents, Jewish émigrés from Russia, had come to the United States in the 1890s. Her father’s business did well enough that the family lived relatively comfortably compared to their neighbors. Levine received a bachelor’s degree from Hunter College in 1923, and then went on to earn her M.D. from University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1927. Two years later she married Louis Ferber, another medical student, but decided to retain her maiden name. They both did their residencies at Brooklyn Jewish Hospital....

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Pruette, Lorine Livingston (3 Nov. 1896–20 Dec. 1976), psychologist, social scientist, and feminist, was born in Millersburg, Tennessee to Eulalia Miller Pruette, a former schoolteacher, and Oscar Davis Pruette, a gentleman farmer. Raised a daughter of the South, Pruette spent her first five years in a small cottage on one hundred acres where her father raised pigs, hens, cattle, and horses. This first home was isolated and rural, and her parents’ marriage was contentious. Pruette later recalled her childhood as lonely and described herself as “the odd ball” (Trigg, p. 37)....

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Ray, Isaac (16 January 1807–31 March 1881), psychiatrist, was born in Beverly, Massachusetts, the son of Captain Isaac Rea and his second wife, the widow Lydia Symonds. The spelling of the family name was changed sometime between 1807 and the death of Captain Ray in 1814....

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Sackler, Arthur Mitchell (22 August 1913–26 May 1987), research psychiatrist, art collector, and philanthropist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Isaac Sackler and Sophie (maiden name unknown). In the 1930s Sackler simultaneously studied medicine at New York University (NYU) and art history at NYU and the Cooper Union Art Institute. To fund his medical studies, he joined the William Douglas MacAdams medical advertising agency. Sackler earned his B.S. from NYU in 1933 and his M.D. from NYU in 1937. In 1935 he married Else Jorgensen; they had two children....

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Salmon, Thomas William (06 January 1876–13 August 1927), psychiatrist and reformer, was born in Lansingburgh (now Troy), New York, the son of Thomas Henry Salmon, a physician, and Annie E. Frost. Salmon, whose father had immigrated from England in 1860, went to the local public school and graduated from the Lansingburgh Academy in 1894. He taught school at Pleasant Valley, New York, until 1895 and then attended Albany Medical College for the next four years. In 1899 he received an M.D. from Albany Medical College and, that same year, married Helen Potter Ashley; they had six children....