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Chinn, May Edward (15 April 1896–01 December 1980), physician and cancer researcher, was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, the daughter of William Lafayette Chinn, a former slave who had escaped to the North from a Virginia plantation and had unsteady employment as a result of race discrimination, and Lulu Ann Evans, a domestic worker. Occasionally William Chinn worked at odd jobs and as a porter. Raised in New York City, May Chinn was educated in the city’s public schools and at the Bordentown Manual Training and Industrial School (N.J.), and she attended Morris High School in New York. A severe bout with osteomyelitis of the jaw plagued her as a child and required extensive medical treatment. Her family’s poverty forced her to drop out of high school in the eleventh grade for a factory job. A year later she scored high enough on the entrance examination for Teachers’ College at Columbia University to be admitted to the class of 1921 without a high school diploma....

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del Regato, Juan A. (01 March 1909–12 June 1999), oncologist, was born Juan Angel del Regato in Camagüey, Cuba, the son of Juan del Regato, an electrical engineer, and Damiana Manzano del Regato. After attending both public and private schools in his native city as well as in Nuevitas and Santa Clara, Cuba, and Mérida, Mexico, he entered the University of Havana in 1926 as a premedical student. In Havana del Regato supported himself by working as an extern, a medical photographer, and later as an X-ray technician, and when the university was forced to close in 1930 because of political unrest, he continued his education at the University of Paris with the financial support of the Cuban League of Cancer....

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Lampe, Isadore (16 November 1906–25 January 1982), radiologist, was born Isadore Lampkovitz in London, England, the son of Anna Tamarkin, a Russian, and Joseph Lampkovitz, a cabinetmaker from Poland. He entered the United States when only four and a half months old, wrapped in a tallith, a Jewish prayer shawl. They family settled in Cleveland, Ohio, where they adopted the conservative practices of Orthodox Judaism developed in the United States. Young Isadore attended Mount Pleasant Elementary School and, at the same time, the Hebrew School. In 1923 he graduated with honors from Central High School....

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Papanicolaou, George Nicholas (13 May 1883–19 February 1962), anatomist, oncologist, and endocrinologist, was born in Coumi (or Kyme), Greece, the son of Nicholas Papanicolaou, a physician, and Mary Critsutas. After early schooling in Coumi, he attended Gymnasium in Athens and then studied medicine at the University of Athens. After receiving his M.D. degree in 1904, he completed his mandatory military service (1904–1906). He returned to Coumi, where he joined his father briefly in the practice of medicine, before leaving for further education in Germany. In 1910 he received the Ph.D. in zoology at Munich. His thesis, entitled “Sex Determination and Sex Differentiation,” had been completed under the supervision of ...

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Soiland, Albert (05 May 1873–16 May 1946), pioneer radiation oncologist, was born in Stavanger, Norway, the son of Edward Soiland, a ship captain, and Axeline Christine Halvorson. His father died when Albert was only three, and his mother remarried in 1883. Shortly thereafter, at age ten, Soiland moved with his new family to Chicago, Illinois, where he attended high school, became a U.S. citizen in 1895, and in that same year registered at the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons. There Soiland was guided by physician W. G. Terry in the study of medicine and became intrigued by the recent discovery of X-rays by a German physicist, Wilhelm Röntgen. In 1896, using Röntgen’s technique, the first malignant tumor was successfully irradiated in the United States, in Chicago. In an effort to further the technology in the United States, Soiland assisted Terry in building a coil X-ray generator for the college....

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Sugiura, Kanematsu (05 June 1890–21 October 1979), pioneer in experimental tumor growth and chemotherapy, was born in Tsushima, near Nagoya, Japan, the son of a dye maker and descendant of Samurai warriors. Sugiura immigrated to the United States in 1905 as the guest of ...