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Margaret Arnstein. Right, with Secretary of HEW Oveta Culp Hobby. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (A018286).

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Arnstein, Margaret (27 October 1904–08 October 1972), public health nurse and educator, was born Margaret Gene Arnstein in New York City, the daughter of Leo Arnstein, a successful businessman, and Elsie Nathan, a volunteer social worker. She was exposed to public health nursing at an early age by her parents, both second-generation Jewish Americans of German heritage, who were involved with ...

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Crandall, Ella Phillips (16 September 1871–24 October 1938), public health nurse and educator, was born in Wellsville, New York, the daughter of Herbert A. Crandall, a manufacturer, and Alice Phillips, a seamstress. She grew up in Dayton, Ohio, to which her father moved in 1872 to work with the railroad. The Crandalls were Presbyterians, and Crandall’s father served on Dayton’s school and health boards....

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Manning, Isaac Hall (14 September 1866–12 February 1946), physician, medical educator, and medical care administrator, was born in Pittsboro, North Carolina, the son of John Manning, a state legislator, congressman, law professor, and founder of the University of North Carolina Law School, and Louisa Hall. Manning attended the University of North Carolina from 1886 to 1891, including the then one-year medical program (he received no degrees). For four years he was an industrial chemist in Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1894 he enrolled in the Long Island College Hospital in Brooklyn, where he received the doctor of medicine degree in 1897....

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McCaw, James Brown (12 July 1823–13 August 1906), hospital administrator and educator, was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of William Reid McCaw, a third-generation physician, and Ann Ludwell Brown. Having apparently opted for a career in medicine at an early age, McCaw completed his premedical studies at Richmond Academy and then enrolled in the medical school of the University of the City of New York (now New York University), where he studied with the renowned surgeon ...

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Steiner, Lewis Henry (04 May 1827–18 February 1892), physician, state senator, and librarian, was born in Frederick, Maryland, the son of Christian Steiner, a merchant, and Rebecca Weltzheimer. Steiner studied at the Frederick Academy and in 1846 graduated from Marshall College in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, where he was considered a particularly gifted student of chemistry. He went on to study medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he received his M.D. in 1849. Returning home, he established a medical practice in Frederick. In 1852 he moved to Baltimore and thereafter devoted himself to teaching chemistry in relation to medicine....

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Thompson, Mary Harris (15 April 1829–21 May 1895), physician, was born near Fort Ann, New York, the daughter of John Harris Thompson, co-owner of an iron mine, and Calista Corbin. She attended a Methodist school, Troy Conference Academy, in West Poultney, Vermont, and then completed preprofessional education at Fort Edward Collegiate Institute at Fort Edward, New York. Owing to her father’s business difficulties, from age fifteen she had to support herself as a student by teaching at the schools she attended and at public schools. She studied astronomy, chemistry, physiology, and anatomy independently, and she successfully added the latter two subjects to the curricula at the schools where she taught....

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Welsh, Lilian (06 March 1858–23 February 1938), physician, educator, and suffragist, was born in Columbia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Major Thomas Welsh and Annie Eunice Young. Her father served in the Mexican War in 1847, returned to civilian life, and then rejoined the military when the Civil War broke out. He had just risen to the rank of brigadier general, commanding a division of 4,500 men, when he took ill and died in 1863. Welsh graduated from Columbia High School at the age of fifteen as one of two young women making up the first graduating class. Between the years 1873 and 1881 she taught at the primary, elementary, and secondary levels and attended Millersville State Normal School in Pennsylvania and taught there. From 1881 to 1886 she served as the principal of Columbia High School. In 1885, finding no opportunities for women to advance their careers as superintendents of schools, she considered the two choices open to her for continuing her education: work for the A.B. at Bryn Mawr College, which had just opened that year, or proceed to the study of medicine for which at the time no college requirement was necessary. Interest in chemistry steered her on the latter course. She earned the M.D. from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1889 and pursued her studies further by working toward a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Zurich in the hopes of becoming a research scientist. While in Zurich, she met Dr. ...