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Austin, Harriet N. (1825–1891), hydropathic physician and health and dress reformer, was born in Connecticut but raised in Moravia, New York. Little is known about her parentage or early life. At age twenty-six she enrolled in the first class of the coeducational American Hydropathic Institute operated by ...

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Simon Baruch. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B01386).

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Baruch, Simon (29 July 1840–03 June 1921), physician and sanitarian, was born in Schwersenz, Prussia, to Polish Jews Bernhard Baruch and Theresa Gruen. His parents’ occupations are unknown. He attended the Royal Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium in Posen for about seven years before emigrating to the United States in 1855 and settling in Camden, South Carolina, in 1859. In Camden, he apprenticed himself to Drs. Thomas J. Workman and Lynch Horry Deas. Baruch attended the Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston in 1860–1861 and completed his education at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond in 1862, after the South Carolina school closed at the outbreak of the Civil War. His college expenses were paid by Mannes Baum, a family friend from Schwersenz, who had sponsored his emigration in 1855. Baruch became a U.S. citizen on 19 January 1871....

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Kellogg, John Harvey (26 February 1852–14 December 1943), physician, surgeon, and health reformer, was born in rural Livingston County, Michigan, the son of John Preston Kellogg and Anne Stanley, farmers. In 1852 Kellogg’s parents accepted the religious teachings that led to the organization of the Seventh-day Adventist church in 1863. This decision had a marked influence on their son’s life. By 1856 the family had resettled in Battle Creek, Michigan. Part of the proceeds from the sale of their farm was used to relocate the infant Adventist publishing plant from Rochester, New York, to Battle Creek, where Kellogg’s father now operated a small store and broom shop....

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Nichols, Mary Gove (10 August 1810–30 May 1884), reformer and author, was born Mary Sargeant Neal in Goffstown, New Hampshire, the daughter of William A. Neal and Rebecca R. Neal. Although Mary’s formal education was limited, with encouragement from her freethinking father she was reading by the age of six. Her father treated her like a son, and the two often engaged in “intellectual sparring.” Despite her abilities, Mary was a shy and lonely child who never felt equal to her siblings....

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Nichols, Thomas Low (1815–1901), hydrotherapist, health educator, and writer, was born in Orford, New Hampshire. His parents, whose names are unknown, were probably farmers. After growing up in New England, he enrolled in Dartmouth Medical College in 1834, only to drop out without earning a degree. Over the next six years he pursued journalism, submitting columns to the ...

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Trall, Russell Thacher (05 August 1812–23 September 1877), hydropathic physician and health reformer, was born in Vernon, Connecticut. His parents’ names and occupations are unknown. Trall spent his boyhood in western New York, where he worked on a farm before illness led him to seek medical treatment. Dissatisfied with the result and determined to improve his health, Trall studied with a local preceptor and in 1835 received an M.D. after completing a course of medical lectures at Albany Medical College. He married Rebecca (her maiden name and the date of their marriage are unknown); they had one child....