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Bennett, John Cook (03 August 1804–05 August 1867), physician, religious leader, and entrepreneur, was born in Fair Haven, Bristol County, Massachusetts, the son of John Bennett, a shipowner, and Abigail Cook. At his father’s death in 1817, he moved with his mother to Ohio to stay with relatives. In 1825, after a three-year apprenticeship with a physician and an oral examination by an Ohio medical society, Bennett received his M.D. and a license to practice. That year he married Mary Barker; they had three children. There is no evidence supporting his claim to have attended Ohio University or McGill College in Montreal; he did, however, become a Freemason in 1826....

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Craigie, Andrew (22 February 1754–19 September 1819), druggist, entrepreneur, and speculator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Andrew Craigie, a ship captain and merchant, and Elizabeth Gardner. He attended Boston Latin School for an undetermined period starting in 1763; there is no information as to his further education. Indeed, there seems to be no further record of him until 1775, when the Massachusetts Committee of Safety appointed him to take care of medical stores and the Provincial Congress named him “medical commissary and apothecary for the Massachusetts army.” This and his subsequent activity in the Continental army suggest that he had had some background in pharmacy or the wholesale drug business. There is nothing known of Craigie’s background or later activity that would warrant the appellation “Doctor” frequently accorded him....

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Evans, John (09 March 1814–03 July 1897), physician, businessman, and politician, was born near Waynesville, Ohio, the son of David Evans and Rachel Burnet, farmers. His Quaker father left their modest farm and became a successful real estate investor. John completed his education at the Medical Department of the Cincinnati College in 1838. That year he married Hannah Canby. They moved to Attica, Indiana, where, after hearing the stirring sermons of Bishop ...

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Giannini, Attilio Henry (02 March 1874–07 February 1943), physician, banker, and motion picture executive, was born in San Jose, California, the son of Italian immigrants Luigi Giannini and Virginia Demartini, farmers and ranchers. After the fatal shooting of his father by a disgruntled employee in August 1876, Giannini’s mother took over management of their Alviso, California, farm. She married Lorenzo Scatena, and in June 1880 the family moved to San Francisco. While Scatena developed a wholesale produce business, L. Scatena & Co., Giannini attended Washington Grammar School in North Beach....

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Katona, George (06 November 1901–18 June 1981), behavioral economist, was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Sigmund Katona, operator of the city’s largest grain mill, and Olga Wittman. Katona grew up in a prosperous Jewish family in Budapest. He entered the University of Budapest in 1918 in order to study law, but a 1919 Communist putsch led by Bela Kun forced the closure of the university and led Katona to study under Georg Elias Müller at the Psychological Institute of the University of Göttingen, from which he received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology in 1921. Inflation in Germany in 1922–1923 made him abandon his plans to become a privatdocent at the University of Frankfurt. Instead, he accepted a position in the research department of a Frankfurt bank, where he studied the psychology of inflation. In 1923 he went to Berlin to continue his education in Gestalt psychology under ...

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O’Fallon, James (11 March 1749– December 1793), physician, speculator, and adventurer, was born in Roscommon, western Ireland, the son of William Fallon and Anne Eagan. (O’Fallon added the prefix to his name about 1783.) He studied medicine for two years at the University of Edinburgh (1771–1773), did not graduate, but was licensed by that or another institution as a physician. Thereafter he visited Rome, perhaps in anticipation of entering the priesthood. Subsequently, however, he worked at a hospital in London. In Glasgow in 1774 he was advised by a doctor at the university to go to the colonies, where a revolt was in the making “in favour of Liberty.” As his son John later wrote, “The strong spirit of freedom was already in James, and, (as a genuine Irishman) an hereditary aversion to British oppression” (Draper coll., 34J20)....

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Pendleton, Edmund Monroe (19 March 1815–26 January 1884), physician, entrepreneur, and educator, was born in Eatonton, Georgia, the son of Coleman Pendleton and Martha Gilbert. When his formal education in local private schools ended after only a few years because of his family’s financial reverses, Pendleton entered the business world. He shared the ownership of a jewelry store in Columbus, Georgia, and later ran a similar business with a cousin, W. B. Johnston, in Macon, Georgia. While working in the latter location Pendleton came across a chemistry textbook, which served as his introduction to science. He soon developed an interest in medicine and studied the subject independently and in the office of a local doctor. Determined to learn as much as possible on the subject, he also served an apprenticeship with a local pharmacist. Pendleton entered the newly founded (1833) Medical College of South Carolina in Charleston and graduated in 1837. While attending lectures at the college he also studied in the medical office of the college’s founder, ...

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Phelps, Guy Rowland (01 April 1802–18 March 1869), physician and insurance executive, was born in Simsbury, Connecticut, the son of Noah Amherst Phelps, occupation unknown, and Charlotte Wilcox. Growing up in a locally prominent family, he received his primary education in Simsbury and Suffield and then studied medicine under the direction of physicians John Bestore of Simsbury and Mason Cogswell. Phelps graduated from the Medical Institution of Yale College in 1825, spent the next several winters teaching school, and devoted his summers to additional medical studies. He then removed to New York City and continued his medical education under ...

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Watson, John Broadus (09 January 1878–25 September 1958), psychologist and advertising executive, was born near Travelers Rest, South Carolina, the son of Pickens Butler Watson and Emma Keziah Roe, farmers. Named for a prominent minister, John was raised by his mother in the evangelical traditions of the local Baptist church. His father was known for his lack of business sense, explosive temper, bouts of drunkenness, and frequent absences from home. When John was twelve, his mother sold the family farm and moved to nearby Greenville, South Carolina. There John did poorly in the public school, fought his peers, and was twice arrested. At Furman University, which he entered as a preparatory student in 1894, Watson became interested in psychology. He graduated with an M.A. in 1899....