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Cone, Claribel (14 November 1864–20 September 1929), and Etta Cone (30 November 1870–31 August 1949), art collectors, were born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, the daughters of Herman Cone, a grocery business owner, and Helen Guggenheimer. The Cone family moved in 1871 to Baltimore, where Herman Cone opened a wholesale grocery business. The business flourished, and the Cones moved to a fashionable neighborhood and engaged in the social life of a large German-Jewish community. By the late 1880s the two eldest sons, ...

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Fowler, Orson Squire (11 October 1809–18 August 1887), phrenologist and publisher, was born in Cohocton, Steuben County, New York, the son of Horace Fowler, a farmer, and Martha Howe. He was graduated from Amherst College in 1834 and in 1835 married Eliza Brevoort Chevalier, a widow, by whom he had two children. Though educated for the ministry, he devoted himself to phrenology, the “science” of the mind that was formulated by Franz Joseph Gall and introduced to the United States by Johann Gaspar Spurzheim. Phrenology postulated that, because the brain was the organ of the mind and shaped the skull, there was an observable concomitance between the mind (talents, disposition, character) and the shape of the head. In an analysis, a phrenologist examined the latter to determine the former. Immediately after graduation Fowler started his professional career as itinerant practical phrenologist in New England. Using charts and a phrenological bust, he lectured on phrenology and analyzed heads, sizing “organs” or “faculties” such as amativeness, combativeness, firmness, and ideality to determine character. It was believed that each faculty manifested itself through its own cerebral organ, the size of which indicated its functional power. The size of the organ, it was believed, could be increased or decreased by exercise....

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Kingsley, Norman William (26 October 1829–20 February 1913), dental surgeon and sculptor, was born in Stockholm, New York, the son of Nathaniel Kingsley and Eliza Williams, farmers. At age four he moved with his family to Poultney, Vermont, and about five years later to Bradford County, Pennsylvania, where he helped with the farm during growing season and attended an academy in Troy, New York, during the winter. At age fifteen he moved to Elmira, New York, and worked as a clerk and bookkeeper in several business establishments. He also began developing his considerable ability as an artist by dabbling in the engraving of copper and wood, and in the process earned a considerable local reputation. In 1847 he returned to Troy, where he clerked in a general store for a year before moving to Elizabeth, New Jersey, to study dentistry with his uncle A. W. Kingsley. Although the elder Kingsley refused to teach him how to make false teeth from porcelain, a secret that the dental profession guarded jealously, he soon learned to do so on his own by carefully observing his uncle and then conducting experiments in the laboratory and kiln while his mentor was on holiday....

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Marston, William Moulton (09 May 1893–02 May 1947), psychologist and comic book creator, was born in Cliftondale, Massachusetts, the son of Frederick William Marston, a wholesale merchant, and Annie Dalton Moulton. Marston married Elizabeth Holloway in 1915, and the couple had five children, four of whom survived infancy. He graduated from Harvard University with an A.B. in 1915 and enrolled in the Harvard Law School the same year. Marston later claimed he “had the luck to discover the so-called Marston Deception Test, better known as The Lie Detector” while he was still an undergraduate. He was certainly one of the lie detector’s most energetic punblicizers, and the publication of his 1917 paper on the “Systolic Blood Pressure Symptoms of Deception” ( ...

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Miller, Charles Henry (20 March 1842–21 January 1922), doctor of medicine, artist, and writer, was born in New York City, the son of Jacob H. Miller, an architect, and Jayne M. Taylor. He attended Mount Washington Collegiate Institute to prepare for a career in law or medicine, although early on he had displayed an interest in painting and drawing. In 1860 Miller exhibited his first painting at the National Academy of Design, and the following year he sent two more paintings for exhibition. His father, unhappy with his son’s interest in art, urged him to enroll in the New York Homeopathic Medical Institute. Miller acquiesced to his father’s wishes and completed his medical studies in 1863, receiving his degree from ...

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Otis, George Alexander (12 November 1830–23 February 1881), U.S. Army medical officer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of George Alexander Otis, a lawyer, and Anna Maria Hickman. His mother remained for some time in Boston after his father died in 1831 before returning to her native Virginia, and Otis attended Boston Latin School before entering school in Fairfax County, Virginia. He received a B.A. from Princeton College in 1849 and entered medical school at the University of Pennsylvania that same year, after spending the summer studying with a local physician. He married Pauline Clark Baury in 1850; they had two children. In 1851 Otis received both an M.A. from Princeton and his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. He then studied ophthalmic and general surgery in Paris, France, until the spring of 1852, when he returned to the United States and opened a private practice in Richmond, Virginia....

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Sackler, Arthur Mitchell (22 August 1913–26 May 1987), research psychiatrist, art collector, and philanthropist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Isaac Sackler and Sophie (maiden name unknown). In the 1930s Sackler simultaneously studied medicine at New York University (NYU) and art history at NYU and the Cooper Union Art Institute. To fund his medical studies, he joined the William Douglas MacAdams medical advertising agency. Sackler earned his B.S. from NYU in 1933 and his M.D. from NYU in 1937. In 1935 he married Else Jorgensen; they had two children....

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Wilkens, Emily Ann (6 May 1917–2 Dec. 2000), fashion designer, fashion illustrator, and spa and beauty authority, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, the eldest of four children of Lithuanian and Russian Jewish immigrants Morris Wilkens and Rose Drey Wilkens. Morris Wilkens was a pharmacist who also dabbled in real estate. Wilkens would later draw on the memory of her own awkward stage as a young teenager, in her quest to create fashionable yet age-appropriate clothing that fit and flattered the bodies of developing adolescent girls....

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Wissler, Clark (18 September 1870–25 August 1947), anthropologist, museologist, and psychologist, was born Clarkson Davis Wissler in Wayne County, Indiana, the son of Benjamin Franklin Wissler, a schoolteacher, and Sylvania Needler. From 1888 to 1893 he taught public school in Wayne County. He entered Indiana University in 1893, graduating in 1897 with a B.A. in psychology. He continued his work in psychology at Indiana, receiving his M.A. in 1899 while also teaching psychology at Ohio State. That year Wissler married Etta Viola Gebbart; they had two children. In 1901 he received his Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University, where he had become well acquainted with ...