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Babcock, Orville Elias (25 December 1835–02 June 1884), soldier, engineer, and presidential secretary, was born in Franklin, Vermont, the son of Elias Babcock, Jr., and Clara Olmstead. Graduating third in his class from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1861, he was commissioned a second lieutenant of engineers. During the first year of the Civil War he gained promotion to first lieutenant, serving successively in the Department of Pennsylvania and the Department of the Shenandoah. He was then transferred to the Army of the Potomac, where he served on the staff of ...

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Tousard, Anne-Louis (12 March 1749–10 April 1817), soldier, engineer, and diplomat, was born in Paris, the son of Charles Germain de Tousard, a French general, and Antoinette de Poitevin de la Croix. In 1765 he graduated from the French Artillery School in Strasbourg, and he then served in Bayonne, Douay, Bapaume, and Mézières. The French government permitted him to volunteer for service in America, and he arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on 20 April 1777 as part of a group of French officers under Philippe Tronson du Coudray. Du Coudray had been recruited by the American agent ...