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Chisholm, Hugh Joseph (02 May 1847–08 July 1912), capitalist, was born in Chippawa, Ontario, Canada, the son of Alexander Chisholm and Mary Margaret Phelan. His father died when he was thirteen, causing him to go to work for the Grand Trunk Railroad as a newsboy on the passenger train that ran between Toronto and Detroit. Three years later, having completed the night school course at a Toronto business college, he and a brother acquired the rights to sell newspapers aboard all Grand Trunk trains running between Chicago, Illinois, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, as well as on board most of the steamboats that plied the St. Lawrence River. In 1867 the two brothers established Chisholm Brothers, a publishing company that produced the first railroad and tourist guides and souvenir brochures. In 1872 Chisholm exchanged his interest in the partnership’s Canadian operations for his brother’s rights to its New England business and moved to Portland, Maine....

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Crocker, Alvah (14 October 1801–26 December 1874), manufacturer, railroad promoter, and congressman, was born in Leominster, Massachusetts, the son of Samuel Crocker and Comfort Jones. His parents were among the founders of the Baptist church in Leominster, and they imparted a strong work ethic to their seven sons, of whom Alvah was the eldest. He went to work at the age of eight in a Leominster paper mill, where he earned twenty-five cents for each twelve-hour day. He received little formal education (one year at Groton Academy at age sixteen), but he read widely on his own, and his letters displayed a bent toward literature and rhetoric. He subsequently worked in other paper mills in Franklin, New Hampshire, and Fitchburg, Massachusetts, before he started his first industrial concern, a paper manufactory in Fitchburg in 1826....

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Dennison, Henry Sturgis (04 March 1877–29 February 1952), manufacturer and social reformer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Henry B. Dennison, a manufacturer, and Emma J. Stanley. Educated at Roxbury Latin School and Harvard University, Dennison joined his family’s paper products company after his graduation from Harvard in 1899 and quickly demonstrated the combination of business ability and social activism that would make him one of the best-known executives of the twentieth century. As works manager after 1906 and as president after 1917, Dennison contributed substantially to the growth of Dennison Manufacturing. Under his stewardship the company embraced systematic organization and modern management and became a leading manufacturer of jewelers’ boxes, crepe paper, tags, and labels. Most of all, it became a private social laboratory where Dennison applied his theories of industrial and social reform....

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Hunter, Dard (29 January 1883–20 February 1966), designer and papermaker, was born William Joseph Hunter in Steubenville, Ohio, the son of William Henry Hunter, a newspaperman and editor, and Harriet Rosemond. The family moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, when Hunter was seventeen. There his father was the editor of the ...

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McCabe, Thomas Bayard (11 July 1893–27 May 1982), international businessman and government official, was born in Whaleyville, Maryland, the son of William Robbins McCabe, a banker, and Beulah Whaley. McCabe received his early education in Whaleyville and then entered Wilmington Academy in Dover, Delaware, in 1907; three years later he entered Swarthmore College, from which he received his A.B. in economics in 1915. After graduating from Swarthmore, McCabe joined the Scott Paper Company of Chester, Pennsylvania, earning $15 a week as a salesman until U.S. entry into World War I. McCabe served in the U.S. Army from 1917 to 1919, rising from the rank of private to captain....

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Rittenhouse, William (1644–17 February 1708), paper manufacturer and Mennonite bishop, was born in Mülheim on the Ruhr River near Essen, in the lordship of Broich and the duchy of Berg, the son of Maria Hagerhoffs and George Rittenhausen (also spelled Rüddinghuysen and Rittinghausen). Almost nothing is known about his early life. His father may have been involved in papermaking, an important industry in Mülheim since at least the early sixteenth century. William married a local woman (name unknown), with whom he had three children, all of whom were born between 1666 and 1674, presumably in Mülheim....

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West, George (17 February 1823–20 September 1901), manufacturer and congressman, was born in Bradninch, Devonshire County, England, the son of George West, a paper manufacturer, and Jane (maiden name unknown). He briefly attended the local school and at age eleven went to work in a paper mill, perhaps that of his father. From ages fourteen to twenty-one he served an apprenticeship to a paper manufacturer, during which time he filled increasingly responsible positions. In 1844 he married Louisa Rose. They had six children....