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Crocker, Alvah (14 October 1801–26 December 1874), manufacturer, railroad promoter, and congressman, was born in Leominster, Massachusetts, the son of Samuel Crocker and Comfort Jones. His parents were among the founders of the Baptist church in Leominster, and they imparted a strong work ethic to their seven sons, of whom Alvah was the eldest. He went to work at the age of eight in a Leominster paper mill, where he earned twenty-five cents for each twelve-hour day. He received little formal education (one year at Groton Academy at age sixteen), but he read widely on his own, and his letters displayed a bent toward literature and rhetoric. He subsequently worked in other paper mills in Franklin, New Hampshire, and Fitchburg, Massachusetts, before he started his first industrial concern, a paper manufactory in Fitchburg in 1826....

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McCabe, Thomas Bayard (11 July 1893–27 May 1982), international businessman and government official, was born in Whaleyville, Maryland, the son of William Robbins McCabe, a banker, and Beulah Whaley. McCabe received his early education in Whaleyville and then entered Wilmington Academy in Dover, Delaware, in 1907; three years later he entered Swarthmore College, from which he received his A.B. in economics in 1915. After graduating from Swarthmore, McCabe joined the Scott Paper Company of Chester, Pennsylvania, earning $15 a week as a salesman until U.S. entry into World War I. McCabe served in the U.S. Army from 1917 to 1919, rising from the rank of private to captain....

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Richmond, Dean (31 March 1804–27 August 1866), businessman and politician, was born Elkanah Dean Richmond in Barnard, Vermont, the son of Hathaway Richmond, a manufacturer, and Rachel Dean. He never used his first name. He received only a few years of formal education during childhood, and after 1816, when the family moved to Salina (now Syracuse), New York, he learned the skills of salt production from his father and three uncles, who together operated a salt manufacturing concern. In 1821 Richmond’s father died, and Richmond took his father’s place in the salt business. Richmond married Mary Elizabeth Mead in 1833, and the couple had eight children. In 1842, after twenty-two years as a moderately successful businessman in Syracuse, Richmond moved to Buffalo, New York, and opened a new concern as a grain transporter. He also cofounded and directed the Buffalo & Rochester Railroad....

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West, George (17 February 1823–20 September 1901), manufacturer and congressman, was born in Bradninch, Devonshire County, England, the son of George West, a paper manufacturer, and Jane (maiden name unknown). He briefly attended the local school and at age eleven went to work in a paper mill, perhaps that of his father. From ages fourteen to twenty-one he served an apprenticeship to a paper manufacturer, during which time he filled increasingly responsible positions. In 1844 he married Louisa Rose. They had six children....