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Armand Hammer Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-114806 ).

Article

Hammer, Armand (21 May 1898–10 December 1990), entrepreneur and philanthropist, was born on the Lower East Side of New York City, the son of Russian-born Julius Hammer, a pharmacist and physician, and Rose Robinson. Hammer’s childhood economic circumstances were better than those of many of his immigrant contemporaries. When he was still a child, his family moved to the Bronx, where his father balanced a quest for a medical degree with the demands of his drugstores. Hammer attended Morris High School and in 1917 registered at Columbia Heights Premedical School. Two years later he enrolled at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he graduated in June 1921....

Article

Sbarboro, Andrea (26 November 1839–28 February 1923), wine producer and banker, was born in Acero, Italy, near Genoa, the son of Stefano Sbarboro, a farmer, and Maria (maiden name unknown). In 1844 the Sbarboros and their nine children emigrated to New York City, where Andrea was a street peddler of toys from the age of eight. His mother, a strong Catholic, did not allow Andrea to attend public schools because they offered no religious instruction; thus, he received little formal education. He learned to write from a neighbor who gave evening lessons and later received additional instruction in an Italian-American school....