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Breaux, Joseph Arsenne (18 February 1838–23 July 1926), jurist and educator, was born at Bayou Goula in Iberville Parish, Louisiana, the son of John B. Breaux and Margaret Walsh, planters. After completing his undergraduate work at Georgetown College in Kentucky, Breaux studied law at the University of Louisiana (now Tulane) and graduated in 1859. Admitted to the Louisiana bar in 1860, he opened his law office in New Iberia. In 1861 Breaux married Eugenia Mille; they had no children....

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Clark, Charles Edward (19 December 1889–13 December 1963), lawyer, law professor, dean of Yale Law School, and federal appellate judge, was born in Woodbridge, Connecticut, the son of Samuel Clark, a successful dairy farmer, and Pauline Marquand. Clark kept farmer’s hours, believed in the redeeming virtue of hard work and candor, and accepted the conventional personal and family mores of New England Calvinism. His political opinions would change from New England Republicanism to New Deal Democracy, but his personal values remained a constant, rooted in many generations of Connecticut yeomanry....

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Daly, Charles Patrick (31 October 1816–19 September 1899), jurist and author, was born in New York City, the son of Michael Daly, a carpenter and hotel manager, and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). Daly attended a parochial school for a short time. Following the death of Daly’s mother, his father remarried, and after his father’s death, Daly was left in the care of his stepmother. At age thirteen he fled his home and settled briefly in Savannah, Georgia, working as an apprentice to a quillmaker. Within a year he left Savannah and went to sea for two years. Returning to New York City in 1832, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. At night he educated himself through reading at the library of the Mechanic’s and Tradesman’s Society and participation in a literary society. In 1836 he exchanged the cabinetmaker’s apprenticeship for one in a law office. He passed the New York bar examination in 1839 and became a junior partner in the same firm....

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Danforth, Thomas ( November 1623–05 November 1699), magistrate of Massachusetts, was born in Framlingham, Suffolk County, England, and was baptized on 20 November 1623, the son of Nicholas Danforth and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). His father, a prosperous yeoman who was known as a patron of Puritan divines, decided to emigrate to Massachusetts shortly after the death of his wife in 1634. Nicholas Danforth died in 1638, committing his two sons, Thomas and an elder brother Samuel, to the care of the Reverend ...

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Duer, William Alexander (08 September 1780–30 May 1858), politician, lawyer, and college president, was born in Rhinebeck, New York, the son of Catharine Alexander and William Duer, a patriot entrepreneur whose ventures collapsed in 1792. Duer’s maternal grandfather, Major General William Alexander of New Jersey, claimed the Scottish earldom of Stirling, and through his maternal great-grandfather, ...

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Gould, James (05 December 1770–11 May 1838), lawyer and judge, was born in Branford, Connecticut, the son of William Gould, a doctor, and Mary Foote. As a boy he suffered from gout, which affected his eyesight. He was educated at home and then in local schools. In 1787 he entered Yale College, where he had to have books read to him. Despite his poor eyesight, Gould graduated first in his class and delivered the salutatory oration “On the Origin and Progress of History, and the Utility of Historic Knowledge,” for which he received the Noah Webster Prize. In college he was known as “a remarkably handsome young man of elegant figure and graceful manners” (Fisher, p. 17)....

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Hays, Paul Raymond (02 April 1903–13 February 1980), educator and federal judge, was born in Des Moines, Iowa, the son of Everett Hollingsworth Hays and Fae Susan Hatch. The family moved to New York City, where Hays would spend the rest of his life. In 1924 he married Eleanor K. Williams. They had one child. He received his A.B. (1924), M.A. (1927), and LL.B. (1933) from Columbia College and its Law School. While still in graduate school, he also taught Greek and Latin at Columbia from 1926 to 1932....

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Howard, Timothy Edward (27 January 1837–09 July 1916), professor, legislator, and judge, was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, the son of Martin Howard and Julia Beahan, farmers. Howard enrolled in the University of Michigan after attending “common schools” and a seminary in Ypsilanti but left during his sophomore year because of an illness in his family. He taught in rural Michigan schools for two years before entering Notre Dame in 1859. In February 1862, before he had graduated, he enlisted in the Twelfth Michigan Infantry. His friends would later recall that he had enlisted without telling anyone at Notre Dame. He served only two months before he was seriously wounded in the battle of Shiloh. Although he recovered, the wound was so severe that he was discharged as unfit for further service....

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Ii, John Papa (03 August 1800–02 May 1870), native Hawaiian jurist and historian, was born at Waipio, Ewa, Oahu Island, Kingdom of Hawaii, the son of Malamaekeeke and Wanaoa, descendants of the chiefs of Hawaii Island. Ii’s family were intimates and junior relatives of the ruling royal family, the Kamehameha dynasty. He was named Papa Ii (pronounced ēē) after an uncle who held a particularly high station in the Kamehameha court. He took the name John (Ioane) upon his conversion to Christianity. John Papa Ii was born into the aristocracy of ancient Hawaii and was a child of privilege. The family had been granted the rich lands at Waipio following the conquest of Oahu by King ...

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Stallo, Johann Bernhard (16 March 1823–06 January 1900), jurist and philosopher, was born in Seirhausen, Oldenburg, Germany, the son of Johann Heinrich Stallo, a schoolmaster, and Maria Adelheid Moormann. Under the tutelage of his father and grandfather, also a schoolmaster, Stallo gained a solid education, especially in mathematics, along with fluency in English, French, and the classical languages. At the age of thirteen he entered the Catholic normal school at Vechta, where he had his first exposure to German philosophy. Limited family resources precluded university study, and to avoid becoming a country schoolteacher, he immigrated to Cincinnati in 1839, following the path of an uncle who had succeeded as a printer in that city. The sixteen-year-old boy quickly secured a teaching position at a local parochial school. Recognizing a need for a German primer, in 1840 he wrote ...

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Thayer, Amos Madden (10 October 1841–24 April 1905), jurist and educator, was born in Mina, New York, the son of Ichabod Thayer and Fidelia La Due, farmers. He attended Hamilton College, in Clinton, New York, graduating in 1862 with an LL.D. He served in the Union army in the Civil War from 1862 to 1865, rising from second lieutenant to brevet major....