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Holman, Jesse Lynch (24 October 1784–28 March 1842), lawyer, judge, and Baptist preacher, was born near Danville, Kentucky, the son of Henry Holeman and Jane Gordon, farmers. In 1789 Holman’s father was killed by Indians, which left his large family poverty-stricken. Holman managed nevertheless to attain a common school education and in his late teens read law in the office of ...

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Lloyd, David ( ?1656–06 April 1731), leading Quaker legislator and jurist of early Pennsylvania, was born in Manafon, Montgomeryshire, Wales, the son of Thomas Lloyd. (His mother’s name is unknown.) After grammar school, Lloyd studied law with George Jeffries, the Welshman who later became lord chief justice of the King’s Bench and lord chancellor of England. On the basis of this legal training, ...

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Proskauer, Joseph Meyer (06 August 1877–11 September 1971), judge, political adviser, and Jewish communal leader, was born in Mobile, Alabama, the son of Alfred Proskauer, a bank cashier, and Rebecca Leinkauf. Born into a southern Jewish family of German and Hungarian descent, Proskauer was educated at Columbia College (B.A., 1896) and Columbia Law School (LL.B., 1899) and began practicing law in New York City in partnership with college friend James Rosenberg in 1900. Two years later both men entered the well-known firm of James, Schell & Elkus, which eventually became Elkus, Gleason & Proskauer. In 1903 Proskauer married Alice Naumburg. ...

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Shippen, Edward (1639– August 1712), merchant, religious martyr, and political leader, was born in Yorkshire, England, the son of William Shippen, a prominent landholder, and Mary Nunnes (or Nuns). Although his older brother earned degrees at Oxford and became an Anglican clergyman, Edward in 1668 emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, a wilderness town of about 3,500. In 1671 he married Elizabeth Lybrand; they had eight children during their seventeen years together. Not long after he joined an artillery company, Shippen converted to his wife’s faith and became a member of the Society of Friends....

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Sulzberger, Mayer (22 June 1843–20 April 1923), jurist and Jewish leader, was born in Heidelsheim, Baden, Germany, to Abraham Sulzberger, a teacher and chazan (cantor), and Sophia Einstein Sulzberger. As a result of German anti-Semitism and the failure of the 1848 German liberal revolutions, the family immigrated in 1849 to Philadelphia, where Abraham’s brother lived. Abraham also had numerous relatives who were rabbinical scholars. Mayer received religious education from his father and from the Rabbis ...

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Toulmin, Harry (07 April 1766–11 November 1823), clergyman, statesman, and judge, was born in Taunton, England, the son of Joshua Toulmin, a Unitarian clergyman, and Jane Smith, a bookstore proprietor. Toulmin attended Hoxton Academy, but much of his education came from spending time in his mother’s bookstore....