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Howe, Mark De Wolfe (22 May 1906–28 February 1967), legal historian and civil rights activist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Mark Antony DeWolfe Howe, a noted biographer, and Fanny Huntington Quincy. Howe lived in the Boston-Cambridge area all of his life. He attended prestigious Phillips Andover Academy and received his B.A. from Harvard in 1928, then his LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1933. In 1935 he married Mary Manning, with whom he had three children....

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Van Waters, Miriam (04 October 1887–17 January 1974), social reformer and penologist, was born in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, the second of five children of George Browne Van Waters, an Episcopal minister, and Maude Vosburg. In 1888 the family moved to Oregon where Reverend Van Waters took up missionary work. Miriam was often left to care for her sisters during her mother’s frequent trips to Pennsylvania....

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Vaux, Roberts (21 January 1786–07 January 1836), philanthropist, educational reformer, and penologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Richard Vaux, a merchant, and Ann Roberts, both members of the Society of Friends. Roberts Vaux was descended on his father’s side from George Vaux of Sussex, England, a physician, who had sent his son, Richard, to Philadelphia in 1768 for mercantile training among Quaker friends and relatives. After acquiring wealth in the Atlantic carrying trade during the American Revolution, Richard Vaux, a Tory sympathizer, married Ann Roberts in 1784. She was descended from an illustrious and prosperous family that traced its American roots back to Hugh Roberts, a friend of ...