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Bettelheim, Bruno (28 August 1903–13 March 1990), therapist, educator, and author, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Anton Bettelheim, a lumber merchant, and Pauline Seidler. Following his father’s death in 1926, he dropped out of the university to take over the family firm. Although successful in business, he re-enrolled ten years later to become, in February 1938, one of the last Jews to obtain a Ph.D. from Vienna University before World War II. While he was a philosophy student, aesthetics was his main subject, but he also studied psychology under ...

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Friedländer, Paul (21 March 1882–10 December 1968), classicist, was born in Berlin, the son of Maximilian Friedländer, a businessman, and Clara Schidlower. He attended school at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium and in 1900 began study at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, both in his native city. There he first met his mentor and patron, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, the greatest Hellenist of modern times. He studied for two semesters in 1902 at Bonn under the Latinist Franz Buecheler and the Hellenist and historian of religion Hermann Usener as well as the archaeologist Georg Loeschcke. He hesitated between archaeology and philology, dedicating his Berlin dissertation, ...

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Kadar, Jan (01 April 1918–01 June 1979), film director, was born in Budapest, Hungary, and raised in Lucenec, a Slovak town occupied by Hungarians. His parents’ names are unknown. He attended Charles University in Prague, where he studied law, but in 1938 he shifted to film studies at the Bratislava Film School in Slovakia. That same year his education was interrupted by the German invasion of Czechoslovakia. His parents and sister were sent to Auschwitz, where they died, and he was sent to a Nazi labor camp near Budapest....