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Bühler, Karl (27 May 1879–24 October 1963), psychologist and theorist of language, was born in Meckesheim, in the state of Baden, Germany. Both his parents, whose names are unknown, were of peasant stock; his father was a railway official. After attending school in Meckesheim and in nearby Tauberbischofsheim, he studied natural sciences and medicine at the University of Freiburg, receiving a medical degree in 1903 for research on the physiology of vision. After further study at the University of Strasbourg, he earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1904. Accounts of the following months differ. Some sources state that Bühler worked briefly as a ship’s physician; others say that he studied under psychologists Carl Stumpf in Berlin and Benno Erdmann in Bonn....

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Davis, Charles Henry Stanley (02 March 1840–07 November 1917), physician, philologist, and Orientalist, was born in Goshen, Connecticut, the son of Timothy Fisher Davis, a physician, and Moriva Hatch. Davis received his early education in the public school system of Meriden, Connecticut, and later through a private tutor, Dr. William Baker. In 1864 he entered the University of Maryland, where he began studies in medicine. He received an M.D. in 1866 from the University of the City of New York. He then undertook postgraduate work in Boston, Massachusetts, and during this period began the publication (1866) of the ...

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Rice, Charles (04 October 1841–13 May 1901), pharmacist, journalist, and linguist, was born in Munich, Germany, the son of Austrian parents with the surname of Reis. He claimed to have changed his name to Rice when he came to the United States in 1862. Because Rice was intensely secretive about his personal life, especially his past, few details are known about his family or early education other than that he received intense instruction in classical and modern languages while in Germany and at the age of twelve began a lifelong study of Sanskrit. When family finances became tight, Rice followed the advice of an uncle who had emigrated to the United States and turned to more practical studies of science. On the death of his parents and in the face of continuing economic difficulties, Rice came to the United States, where he joined the U.S. Navy in 1862....

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Roback, A. A. (19 June 1890–05 June 1965), psychologist, educator, and linguist, was born Abraham Aaron Roback in Goniondz, in what is now Poland, the son of Isaac Roback, a tailor, and Leba (maiden name unknown). He was raised in Montreal, Canada, from the age of two. Roback developed an early interest in comparative linguistics, mastering French, Greek, and Latin by the time he was thirteen years old and soon adding German, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Arabic. He attended McGill University, where he earned an A.B. with honors in 1912, winning the Prince of Wales Medal for exceptional scholarship. He received an M.A. from Harvard University in 1913 for a thesis specializing in psychology, having been denied the opportunity to do interdisciplinary work by his professors. Roback spent a year at Princeton as a Traveling Fellow in 1916–1917. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1917; he wrote his dissertation, ...

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Van Dyck, Cornelius Van Alen (13 August 1818–13 November 1895), medical missionary and translator of the Bible into Arabic, was born in Kinderhook, New York, the son of Henry L. Van Dyck, a physician, and Catherine Van Alen. He attended Kinderhook Academy and studied medicine under his father before going to Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, where he earned his M.D. in 1839....