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Hazen, Moses (01 June 1733–05 February 1803), army officer, landowner, and merchant, was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, the son of Moses Hazen, a merchant, and Abigail White. Hazen was apprenticed to a tanner and later operated independently. The outbreak of the French and Indian War lured him away, and he remained in the military during two great wars. In 1755 he enlisted in a British colonial unit and served under Colonel ...

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Heathcote, Caleb (06 March 1666–01 March 1721), merchant, manor lord, and Anglican activist, was born in Derbyshire, England, the son of Gilbert Heathcote, a trader in hides and iron who served as mayor of Chesterfield, England, and Anne Dickens. While living in England Heathcote became a merchant specializing in trade with New York, where he settled in 1692 after the woman to whom he was betrothed fell in love with his brother Samuel and married him instead....

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Livingston, Robert (13 December 1654–01 October 1728), colonial merchant, landowner, and politician, was born in Ancrum, Scotland, the son of the Reverend John Livingstone, a minister of the Church of Scotland, and Janet Fleeming. Livingston’s father faced the threat of prosecution as a noted Presbyterian minister in a Scottish church that was moving strongly toward Episcopacy in the aftermath of the Restoration of Charles II, and in 1663 the family fled Scotland for the Protestant haven at Rotterdam. The city of Rotterdam had a large community of Scottish merchants in the seventeenth century, and at a young age Livingston began to engage in commerce, possibly under the tutelage of two brothers-in-law who were active traders in that city....

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Philipse, Frederick (1626–1702), manorial landowner and merchant, was born Vrydrych or Frydrych Flypse in Bolswaert, Friesland, the Netherlands, the son of Vrydrych Flypse, a slater, and Margaret Dacres. Little is known of his early youth beyond the fact that he was apprenticed to a carpenter at an early age. The earliest reference to him as a resident of New Amsterdam occurred in 1653, when he appeared as a carpenter in the employ of the Dutch West India Company. He plied his craft and soon sought to increase his opportunities by purchasing a Small Burgher Right, granting him the privilege of trading on a limited scale in his own account. He apparently was successful, for by 1660 he was categorized as “Frederick Philipse, late the Director’s carpenter” and henceforth became noted as a merchant....

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Van Rensselaer, Jeremias (bap. 18 May 1632), merchant and third director of the patroonship of Rensselaerswijck, was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, the son of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a diamond merchant and first patroon of Rensselaerswijck, and Anna van Welij. His education as a merchant came principally from his older brother Jan Baptist, who arrived in new Netherland in 1651 as the second director of Rensselaerswijck. On 3 August 1654 Jeremias sailed from Amsterdam to join his brother in the management of the family’s colony. He went back to Holland the following year but returned to Rennselaerswijck in 1656....