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Deutsch, Gotthard (31 January 1859–14 October 1921), Jewish scholar and college professor, was born Eliezer Deutsch in Kanitz (Province of Moravia), Austria, the son of Bernhard L. Deutsch, a merchant, and Elise Wiener. He always called himself Gotthard, an attempted translation into German of his Jewish given name. Deutsch entered Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary in October 1876. While attending seminary classes, he also enrolled in afternoon classes at the University of Breslau. At the seminary, he was influenced by the noted Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz. Matriculating in 1879 at the University of Vienna, two years later he received his Ph.D. in history. While attending the university, he enrolled in a Talmudic course taught by Isaac Hirsch Weiss at Beth Hammidrash. During his studies in Vienna, Deutsch drew inspiration and guidance from both Weiss and Adolf Jellinek, an authority in midrashic research. Shortly after his graduation, Deutsch received Semichah (ordination) from Rabbi Weiss....

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Neumark, David (03 August 1866–15 December 1924), rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and Hebraist, was born in Szczerzec, Galicia, the son of Solomon Neumark, a shopkeeper, and Schifrah Scheutz. He received a traditional Jewish education and attended cheder (a communal Jewish elementary school) at a very young age while simultaneously receiving supplemental Hebraic instruction from his father who was himself a learned Jew. When his father died, Neumark’s mother ran the family store on her own so that her seven-year-old son would be able to continue his Jewish education. After finishing ...

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Potter, Charles Francis (28 October 1885–04 October 1962), Unitarian and later Humanist minister and author, was born in Marlboro, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Henry Potter, a factory employee, and Flora Ellen Lincoln. Raised in a devout Baptist family, Potter began preaching in Baptist churches while attending Bucknell University in Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1907. He assumed a Baptist pastorate in Dover, New Hampshire, in 1908 and moved to another Baptist pastorate in Mattapan, Massachusetts, in 1910. He earned a B.D. (1913) and an S.T.M. (1917) from Newton Theological Seminary and an M.A. from Bucknell (1916). In 1908 he married Clara Cook, and three children were born to their marriage....

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Reese, Curtis Williford (03 September 1887–05 June 1961), Unitarian minister and religious Humanist, was born in Madison County, North Carolina, the son of Patterson Reese and Rachel Elizabeth Buckner. Reese was raised in a devoutly Southern Baptist family, and after graduating from Mars Hill College in North Carolina, he entered the Baptist ministry in Bellwood, Alabama, in 1908. After a brief stint of supply preaching there, he entered the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary at Louisville in 1908, meanwhile holding pastorates at Gratz and Pleasant Home, Kentucky....