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Deinard, Ephraim (11 May 1846–24 June 1930), Hebrew author, bibliographer, and bookdealer, was born in Shossmaken, Courland, Russia, the son of Jekuthiel Gerson Deinard and Leah Cohen. In addition to attending traditional schools of Jewish learning, he also studied secular subjects with private tutors. By age eighteen he was contributing articles on current issues to the Hebrew weekly ...

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Folger, Henry Clay (18 June 1857–11 June 1930), industrialist, book collector, and philanthropist, was born in New York City, the son of Henry Clay Folger, a dealer in wholesale millinery, and Eliza Jane Clark. After attending Brooklyn’s Adelphi Academy on a scholarship, Folger entered Amherst College. When his father’s business failed during his junior year, Folger briefly attended the City University of New York. He returned to Amherst after being guaranteed the necessary funds by patrons who included Charles M. Pratt, an oil merchant and the father of Folger’s roommate. In March of his senior year Folger attended a lecture delivered by the aged poet and essayist ...

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Hoe, Robert (10 March 1839–22 September 1909), manufacturer and bibliophile, was born in New York City, the son of Robert Hoe, a manufacturer, and Thyrza (or Thirza) Mead. He was educated at the Quackenbush School in New York and by private tutors.

About 1856 Hoe entered the family business, R. M. Hoe & Company of New York, makers of printing presses, industrial saws, and other machines to order. The firm was known worldwide for the “Hoe Type Revolving Machine,” a rotary printing press that was the invention of Hoe’s uncle, ...

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Livermore, George (10 July 1809–30 August 1865), merchant, book collector, and supporter of libraries, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the son of Deacon Nathaniel Livermore and Elizabeth Gleason. He attended public and private schools at Cambridgeport until the age of fourteen. He abandoned the idea of college on health grounds, but he did attend Deerfield Academy in 1827–1828. After employment in the retail business of his older brothers, a stint as a salesman in a dry-goods store in Waltham from 1829 to 1831, and two subsequent years of running that business on his own account, he established a shoe and leather business in 1834. Then in 1838 he became a wool merchant, in partnership with his older brother Isaac. Livermore later wrote to ...

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Rich, Obadiah (1783–20 January 1850), diplomat and book dealer, was born in Truro, Massachusetts, the son of Obadiah Rich, a ship captain, and Salome Lombard. About 1789 his family moved to the Boston area, where Rich resided until 1816. Although the details of Rich’s schooling are not known, an acquaintance described him as “a gentleman by birth and education” and “really learned” (Henry Harrisse, ...

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Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf (22 July 1876–01 July 1952), antiquarian bookseller, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Morris Rosenbach, a soft-goods merchant, and Isabella Polock. As a child, A. S. W. Rosenbach, the youngest of seven children, spent many hours in the bookshop of his uncle Moses Polock, a well-known antiquarian bookseller. There he learned to love old books and manuscripts and absorbed much about history and literature. He was the only one of his family to attend college, receiving his Ph.D. in English literature in 1901 from the University of Pennsylvania....

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Sabin, Joseph (06 December 1821–05 June 1881), bibliographer and bookseller, was born in Braunston, Northamptonshire, near Oxford, England, the son of Joseph Sabin and Mary Shirley. He studied in the common schools in Oxford but did not attend a university. At age fourteen he was apprenticed to Oxford book dealer Charles Richards, who taught him bookbinding but transferred him to sales when his bibliophilic interests began to emerge. Thus immersed in books and prints, Sabin grew to be effective with customers and was promoted to general manager, a position that allowed him to buy books. His increasing responsibilities included the preparation of library sale catalogs, which drew him into the art of bibliographic description. In 1842 he left Richards to form a partnership as a bookseller and auctioneer with a man named Winterborne, whose father was an architect and builder in Oxford and whose sister, Mary Ann, Sabin married in 1844. They had two children....

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Vaughan, John (15 January 1756–30 December 1841), wine merchant, librarian, and philanthropist, was born in London, England, the son of Samuel Vaughan, a merchant in the Jamaica trade, and Sarah Hallowell of Boston, Massachusetts. The family were Whigs in politics, dissenters in religion, and lovers of science, humanity, and America. Destined by his father for a mercantile career, young Vaughan spent the year 1776–1777 in Jamaica and in 1778 was sent to France to learn French and gain further business experience, with a view to settling eventually in America. In France, where he was attached to a merchant firm in Bordeaux, he became intimate with ...