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Angle, Paul McClelland (25 December 1900–11 May 1975), historian and museum director, was born in Mansfield, Ohio, the son of John Elmer Angle, a grocer, and Nellie Laverne McClelland. After spending his freshman year at Oberlin College, he transferred to Miami University at Ohio and graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1922. Two years later, he received an M.A. in history from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He then took a job with the American Book Company selling textbooks and in 1925 accepted the secretaryship of a little-known historical society in Springfield, Illinois, the Abraham Lincoln Centennial Association. In 1926 he married Vesta Verne Magee, a fellow student at Miami; they had two children....

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Filson, John (10 December 1753?–01 October 1788), author, historian, and land surveyor, was born in East Fallowfield Township near Brandywine Creek in Chester County, Pennsylvania, the son of Davison Filson and Eleanor Clarke, farmers. After attending common schools in the vicinity of his birthplace, Filson studied Greek, Latin, mathematics, and surveying at West Nottingham Academy in Colora, Maryland. He inherited part of a modest estate following his father’s death in 1776, but, eschewing life on the farm, he taught school and surveyed lands in the area during the American Revolution....

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Gardiner, Leon (25 November 1892–05 March 1945), African-American bibliophile, researcher, and photographer, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the son of Jacob Gardiner and Martha (maiden name unknown). In 1902 he and his family moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. From childhood he was interested in reading, cross-country running, hiking, camping, and bicycling. Later he developed an interest in music, choir singing, and photography. Blatant racial discrimination kept him from attending the photography school of his choice in Philadelphia, to his great disappointment. In the very early 1900s he began to collect material of various kinds concerning the achievements of blacks, black institutions, and lynchings of blacks....

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Lossing, Benson John (12 February 1813–03 June 1891), author of illustrated books, was born in Beekman, New York, the son of John Lossing and Miriam Dorland, farmers. His father died before Lossing was one year old, and his mother died when he was eleven. At that time, with less than three years of schooling, he started his working career, on a farm. When he was fourteen he was apprenticed to Adam Henderson, a watchmaker and silversmith, in Poughkeepsie and in 1833, on completing his apprenticeship, became a partner in the firm and married Henderson’s niece, Alice Barritt, who died in 1855. There were no children. The following year he married Helen Sweet, with whom he had four children....

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Moore, Charles (20 October 1855–25 September 1942), city planner, journalist, and historian, was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the son of Charles Moore, a merchant, and Adeline MacAllaster. His parents died when he was fourteen years of age, and his brother-in-law became his guardian. Moore’s parents left an inheritance that permitted him to attend Harvard College (now University), where he studied humanities and eventually became the editor of the student newspaper, ...

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Charles Moore. Photomechanical print, first half of the twentieth century. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-90838).

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Ostroff, Eugene (06 July 1928–26 August 1999), historian of photography, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of John Ostroff and Beatrice Weiss Ostroff. After attending the University of California at Los Angeles in 1946, he transferred to Los Angeles City College to study photography, graduating as an Associate in Arts in 1948. He attended New York University from 1948 to 1950 and Columbia University from 1955 to 1958. At Columbia he studied the emerging field of photographic engineering with Professor Lloyd E. Varden and decided to pursue this as his career....

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Saarinen, Aline Bernstein (25 March 1914–13 July 1972), art critic and historian, was born in New York City, the daughter of Allen Bernstein, an investment counselor, and Irma Lewyn. Both parents were amateur painters. Aline graduated from Vassar College as a member of Phi Beta Kappa in 1935. That same year she married Joseph H. Louchheim, a public welfare administrator; they had two children. Aline Louchheim received a master’s degree in architectural history from New York University in 1939. During World War II she worked in governmental service....

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Sachse, Julius Friedrich (22 November 1842–14 November 1919), antiquarian, historian, and photographer, was born in Philadelphia, the son of Johann Heinrich Friedrich Sachse, an artist and designer, and Julianna D. W. Bühler. Julius F. Sachse attended public schools and the Lutheran Academy but had no university education; he was largely a self-educated man. Sachse’s early business career was as a merchant of men’s clothing accessories and a manufacturer of men’s silk shirts. His achievements in shirtmaking were recognized at international trade fairs....

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Schomburg, Arthur Alfonso (24 January 1874–10 June 1938), historian, bibliophile, and curator, was born Arturo Alfonso Schomburg in San Juan, Puerto Rico, the son of Mary Joseph, an unwed midwife or laundress who had been born free in 1837 on St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Some sources claim that his father was Carlos Federico Schomburg, a German-born émigré merchant, but in a reply to a questionnaire from ...

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Stokes, Isaac Newton Phelps (11 April 1867–18 December 1944), architect and historian, was born in New York City, the son of Anson Phelps Stokes, a banker, and Helen Louisa Phelps. His education was interrupted by episodes of ill health, but he entered Harvard University in 1887 and graduated in 1891. Stokes worked briefly in banking before he began to study at the School of Architecture of Columbia University from 1893 to 1894. He left without taking a degree and went to Paris to study housing design at the École des Beaux Arts. Improved tenement housing was to be a lifelong interest of his. In 1895 he married Edith Minturn. They had an adopted daughter....