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Callender, Guy Stevens (09 November 1865–08 August 1915), economist and historian, was born in Hartsgrove, Ohio, the son of Robert Foster Callender and Lois Winslow. The family moved to the Western Reserve (in present-day northeastern Ohio) when Callender was a child. At an early age he demonstrated that he had an active mind, intellectual curiosity, and a strong physical constitution; these attributes, along with his being an avid reader of books, led him at the age of fifteen to teach in the district schools of Ashtabula County. Using his savings from several winters of teaching and his summer earnings made working on the family farm, Callender succeeded in paying for college preparatory courses at New Lyme Institute, South New Lyme, Ohio....

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Feis, Herbert (07 June 1893–02 March 1972), economist and historian, was born in New York City, the son of Louis Jacob Feis, a salesman, and Louisa Waterman. Growing up in lower–middle class surroundings, Feis first worked for a newspaper and attended evening sessions at the City College of New York. He then enrolled in Harvard University, receiving his B.A. magna cum laude in 1916. In 1918 he was commissioned a lieutenant, junior grade, in the U.S. Navy, serving off the British Isles and training crews off the New England coast....

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Filson, John (10 December 1753?–01 October 1788), author, historian, and land surveyor, was born in East Fallowfield Township near Brandywine Creek in Chester County, Pennsylvania, the son of Davison Filson and Eleanor Clarke, farmers. After attending common schools in the vicinity of his birthplace, Filson studied Greek, Latin, mathematics, and surveying at West Nottingham Academy in Colora, Maryland. He inherited part of a modest estate following his father’s death in 1776, but, eschewing life on the farm, he taught school and surveyed lands in the area during the American Revolution....

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Hammond, Bray (20 November 1886–20 July 1968), economic historian and banker, was born in Springfield, Missouri, the son of Harry H. Hammond, a bank cashier, and Lucy Bray. In 1907 he married Lucille Bennett; they had four children before her death in 1927. In 1912 he graduated from Stanford University and was elected Phi Beta Kappa. From 1913 through 1916 he was assistant professor of English at the State College of Washington, in Pullman. From 1917 to 1919 he served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, Aviation Section, rising to captain rank. From 1919 to 1928 he served as personnel manager for a manufacturing firm in New Haven, Connecticut. In 1929 he was a bookkeeper for the Irving Trust Company in New York City, then in 1930 began serving on the Board of Governors for the Federal Reserve System. Hammond remained on the board until 1950, retiring after serving as its assistant secretary during the final six years of his tenure....

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Haynes, Williams (29 July 1886–16 November 1970), publisher, historian, and chemical economist, was born Nathan Gallup Williams Haynes in Detroit, Michigan, the son of David Oliphant Haynes, owner and operator of a publishing company, and Helene Dunham Williams. He spent some time finding what he wanted to do with his life. After six months in his early twenties as a reporter for the ...

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Knight, M. M. (29 April 1887–23 June 1981), economist and historian, was born Melvin Moses Knight near Bloomington, Illinois, the son of Winton Knight and Julia Hyneman, farmers. One of nine children, at age thirteen Knight was helping cultivate the fields, hiring the help, keeping the books for the family farm, and being tutored in Greek by his mother. In 1910, without a high school education, he followed his elder brother ...

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Rothbard, Murray N. (02 March 1926–07 January 1995), economist, historian, and libertarian theorist, was born Murray Newton Rothbard in the Bronx, New York, the son of David Rothbard, a chemical engineer, and Rae Babushkin. He was educated at the Birch Wathen School, a private elementary and high school in New York City, and at Columbia University, where he majored in mathematics and statistics and was elected a member of Phi Beta Kappa. After receiving his bachelor's degree in 1945, he stayed at Columbia and studied economics, earning his M.A. in 1946 and his doctorate in 1956. His dissertation, ...

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Saposs, David J. (22 February 1886–13 November 1968), labor historian and economist, was born in Kiev, Russia, the son of Isaac Saposnik, a peddler of goods, and Shima Erevsky Saposnik. In 1895, the Saposnik family moved to the United States and shortened its name to Saposs. In 1900, after completion of the fifth grade, Saposs left school and held a variety of jobs in the Milwaukee area, including newsboy and worker at the Blatz and Schlitz breweries. In 1906, he was elected shop steward for the Brewery Workers' Union....

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Schwartz, Anna Jacobson (11 Nov. 1915–21 June 2012), economist and economic historian, was born Anna Jacobson in the Bronx borough of New York City, the third of five children and second daughter of Hillel Jacobson, a manager in the kosher meat department of Swift and Co., and Pauline Shainmark Jacobson, both immigrants from Eastern Europe. A talented student, Anna Jacobson first became interested in economics at Walton High School in the Bronx. She then enrolled at Barnard College, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa in ...

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Smith, John (1580–21 June 1631), colonial governor, promoter, and historian, was born in Willoughby by Alford in Lincolnshire, the son of George Smith, a yeoman, and Alice Rickard. His earliest schooling may have been under Francis Marbury, father of Anne Hutchinson, who was schoolmaster in Alford. Toward the end of his life Smith published an autobiography, one of the first examples of the modern genre, which he titled ...

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John Smith. Illustration from The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith, 1629, depicting Smith's 1607 capture. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-99524).