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Angel, John Lawrence (21 March 1915–03 November 1986), physical anthropologist, was born in London, England, the son of John Angel, a sculptor, and Elizabeth Day Seymour, a classicist. After attending elementary school in England at Ovingdean School in Sussex, Angel traveled to the United States at the age of thirteen. He attended Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, and graduated from Harvard College in 1936 with an A.B. degree, magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa. For graduate work, Angel went to Harvard University, working primarily under ...

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Ardrey, Robert (16 October 1908–14 January 1980), anthropologist, playwright, and novelist, was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Robert Lesley Ardrey, an editor and publisher, and Marie Haswell. Ardrey earned a Ph.D. in the natural and social sciences from the University of Chicago in 1930. After taking a writing course taught by ...

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Bartlett, John Russell (23 October 1805–28 May 1886), ethnologist and historian, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the son of Smith Bartlett, a merchant, and Nancy Russell. During his first eighteen years he was schooled in Canada (Kingston and Montreal) and New York before he returned to Providence, where he worked as a bank cashier. Bartlett was married in May 1831 to Eliza Allen Rhodes; they had seven children. In 1836 he moved to New York City. With a partner he opened a bookstore in the Astor House and was soon attracting important customers such as writer ...

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Bascom, William Russel (23 May 1912–11 September 1981), anthropologist and folklorist, was born in Princeton, Illinois, the son of George Rockwell Bascom, an engineer, and Litta Celia Banschbach. His father died when William was thirteen, and his mother then worked as a librarian at the Wisconsin State Historical Library in Madison to support her two children and her invalid mother. Bascom earned his B.A. in physics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1933 and continued postgraduate work in this subject at the same institution the following year. Bascom’s summer employment in 1934 on an archaeological excavation reflected his shift of interest from physics to anthropology. He received an M.A. in anthropology from the University of Wisconsin in 1936. His master’s thesis, “The Role of the Medicine Man in Kiowa Culture,” written under the guidance of ...

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Bateson, Gregory (09 May 1904–04 July 1980), anthropologist, was born in Grandchester, England, the son of William Bateson, a well-known biologist, and Caroline Beatrice Durham. As a young man, Bateson was an outstanding student. He began his academic endeavors at Charterhouse School, London, where he was enrolled from 1917 to 1921. He continued his studies at St. John’s College, Cambridge University, where he obtained a B.Sc. in 1925 and an M.A. in anthropology in 1930. In 1936 he married the anthropologist ...

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Ruth Benedict Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-114649).

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Benedict, Ruth Fulton (05 June 1887–17 September 1948), cultural anthropologist, was born in New York City, the daughter of homeopathic physician Frederick Fulton and Vassar graduate Bertrice Shattuck. Her father died in 1889, and Benedict spent her early childhood on the farm of her maternal grandparents near Norwich, New York. She was influenced by life on the farm and by four years in the Midwest where her mother supported the family by teaching in Missouri and in 1896 as Lady Principal (director of the girls’ division) of Pillsbury Academy in Owatonna, Minnesota. Two years later, her mother took a job as superintendent of circulation at the public library in Buffalo, New York....

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Boas, Franz (09 July 1858–21 December 1942), anthropologist, was born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany, the son of Meier Boas, a merchant, and Sophie Meyer. His mother founded a local kindergarten and maintained “a lively interest in public matters,” he later recalled. To his parents, “the ideals of the revolution of 1848 were a living force.” Franz developed an early distaste for authority and was shocked when an associate defended an unquestioning obedience to tradition. Frail in health as a child, he was passionately interested in books and nature; his mother encouraged his interest in botany. The parents were not overtly religious, so he “was spared the struggle against religious dogma that besets the lives of so many young people” (Boas, ...

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Castaneda, Carlos (15 December 1925?–27 April 1998), anthropologist and writer, was born, according to his own report, on 25 December 1931 in São Paulo, Brazil, the son of a professor of literature; according to U.S. immigration records, he was born Carlos Cesar Aranha Castaneda on 15 December 1925 in Cajamarca, Peru, the son of C. N. Castaneda, a goldsmith and jewelry store owner, and Susana Aranha Castaneda. (Carlos Castaneda identified this couple as his adoptive parents rather than birth parents.) He claimed to have attended a boarding school in Buenos Aires, Argentina, studied sculpture in Milan, Italy, and served in the U.S. Army in Spain during World War II, but neither Italian school records nor American military records confirm his account. In fact, it appears he attended high school in Cajamarca and in 1948 moved with his family to Lima. There he attended the National College of Our Lady of Guadalupe and the National Fine Arts School of Peru, where he studied painting and sculpture. The immigration records indicate that he married in 1951 in Peru (although his wife's name is not known) and that the couple had one child....

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Chamberlain, Alexander Francis (12 January 1865–08 April 1914), anthropologist, was born in Kenninghall, Norfolk, England, the son of George Chamberlain, a businessman, and Maria Anderton. The family emigrated to the United States around 1870 and lived for one year in Bushnell’s Basin, New York, near Rochester, where Chamberlain first attended school. The family soon moved to Canada and settled in Peterborough, Ontario. Chamberlain won his high school’s graduation scholarship and enrolled in the University of Toronto....

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Cobb, William Montague (12 October 1904–20 November 1990), physical anthropologist and anatomist, was born in Washington, D.C., the son of William Elmer Cobb, a printer, and Alexzine Montague. Experiencing racial segregation in education, he graduated in 1921 from Dunbar High School, an elite college-preparatory school for African Americans. Cobb attended Amherst College, where he pursued a classical education in arts and sciences, graduating in 1925. After graduation he received a Blodgett Scholarship to study biology at Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory in Massachusetts. There he met Howard University biologist ...

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Coon, Carleton Stevens (23 June 1904–03 June 1981), anthropologist, was born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, the son of John Lewis Coon, a Boston importer, and Bessie Carleton. He began studying anthropology as a Harvard College sophomore under Earnest A. Hooton, the preeminent physical anthropologist of his era. Coon graduated in 1925 and continued on with Hooton as a Ph.D. student, receiving that degree just before his twenty-fourth birthday. During this period Hooton characterized Coon as a person who obviously yearned for “the society of the uncivilized and unwashed.” Beginning while still an undergraduate, Coon made three research visits to the Rif Berbers of Morocco, then a remote mountain-living people resisting French and Spanish efforts to enforce colonial rule. He was accompanied on his third visit, in 1926, by his wife, Mary Goodale, whom he had married earlier that year and with whom he later had two children. The data collected on these ventures formed his doctoral dissertation, rewritten and published as ...

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Cushing, Frank Hamilton (22 July 1857–10 April 1900), anthropologist, was born in North East, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Cushing, a physician, and Sarah Harding Crittenden. In 1860 the family moved to a farm outside Barre Center, New York, where, beginning apparently with the impression made by an arrowhead tossed to him by one of the field hands when he was about eight, Cushing developed an intense interest in the Indians who had once inhabited the area. He spent much of his boyhood roaming the countryside in search of Indian relics and dwelling sites and attempting to discover, through his own efforts at reproducing them, how the craft objects that he found were originally made. Largely self-trained, he became well versed in the anthropological literature of the day, most importantly that of Edward Tylor and ...

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Davis, Allison (14 October 1902–21 November 1983), educator and anthropologist, was born William Allison Davis in Washington, D.C., the son of John Abraham Davis, who worked in the U.S. Government Printing Office, and Gabrielle Dorothy Beale. He and his two siblings, Dorothy and John Aubrey Davis, grew up on a farm in Virginia and in Washington, D.C., where Davis graduated from the all-black Dunbar High School. The school was “quite well known and had a very good faculty,” he later recalled. “This is important because it shows that not all segregated schools are poor schools” ( ...

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Day, Caroline Stewart Bond (18 November 1889–05 May 1948), anthropologist and college teacher, was born in Montgomery, Alabama, the daughter of Georgia Fagain and Moses Stewart. She was a light-skinned mulatto of African-American, Native-American, and European descent. The Stewart family lived several years in Boston, Massachusetts, where Caroline attended public schools. After her father’s death, Caroline and her mother moved to Tuskegee, Alabama, where Georgia Stewart taught school and married John Percy Bond, a life insurance executive. The couple had two children, and Caroline adopted Bond’s name. She attended Tuskegee Institute and in 1912 earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Atlanta University. She taught English at Alabama State College in Montgomery for a year and then worked for the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) in Montclair, New Jersey. In 1916 she began studying English and classical literature at Radcliffe College of Harvard University, earning a second bachelor’s degree in 1919. At Radcliffe she impressed anthropology professor ...

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Dixon, Roland Burrage (06 November 1875–19 December 1934), anthropologist and natural historian, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, the son of Louis Seaver Dixon, a physician, and Ellen R. Burrage. Appointed an assistant at the Peabody Museum after graduating from Harvard in 1897, he engaged in the archaeological excavation of burial mounds in Madisonville, Ohio. After earning his M.A. in 1898, he joined the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, doing fieldwork in British Columbia and Alaska. He was also a member of the Huntington Expedition in California in 1899. His 1900 Harvard doctoral dissertation dealt with the language of the Maidu Indians of California. It was included by its de facto supervisor, Columbia anthropologist ...

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Dorsey, George Amos (06 February 1868–29 March 1931), anthropologist, was born in Hebron, Ohio, the son of Edwin Jackson Dorsey, a schoolmaster, farmer, and merchant, and Mary Elma Grove. He graduated with bachelor of arts degrees from Denison (1888) and Harvard (1890) Universities. In 1894 he received his Ph.D. from Harvard University with a thesis focusing on the necropolis of Ancón, Peru. His thesis topic stemmed from his graduate work of collecting anthropological materials in Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Bolivia in 1891–1892 for an exhibition at the World’s Columbian Exposition, presented in 1893 in Chicago. While still a graduate student he had been appointed honorary commissioner and superintendent of archaeology at the exposition, which was organized in recognition of the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of the Americas. Dorsey married Ida Chadsey in 1892; they had two children. His second marriage, in 1924, was to Sue McLellan; they had no children....

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Dozier, Edward Pasqual (23 April 1916–02 May 1971), anthropologist, was born in Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico, the son of Thomas Sublette Dozier, a Euroamerican lawyer, teacher, and Indian arts and crafts dealer, and Leocadia Gutierrez, a member of Santa Clara (Tewa) Pueblo. In 1893 Thomas Dozier had left his law practice in Cameron, Missouri, to accept a civil service position as a day school teacher at Santa Clara Pueblo in New Mexico Territory. He quickly developed a keen interest in Tewa language and culture. In his writings and field collecting for museum anthropologists, Dozier aspired to be an ethnologist, but it was Edward, the youngest of the eleven children, who would realize his ambitions....

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Drake, St. Clair, Jr. (02 January 1911–15 June 1990), anthropologist, was born John Gibbs St. Clair Drake, Jr., in Suffolk, Virginia, the son of John Gibbs St. Clair Drake, Sr., a Baptist pastor, and Bessie Lee Bowles. By the time Drake was four years old his father had moved the family twice, once to Harrisonburg, Virginia, and then to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania....

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Eiseley, Loren Corey (03 September 1907–09 July 1977), anthropologist, writer, and philosopher of science, was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, the only son of Clyde Edwin Eiseley, an amateur actor turned hardware salesman, and Daisey Corey, a self-educated artist. The family’s financial instability and his mother’s handicap (she was deaf and, as he later wrote, “always on the brink of mental collapse”) made his formative years in Nebraska a time of profound isolation. For solace, he turned to the Nebraska prairie and its fauna. He enrolled in the University of Nebraska in 1925, but physical and psychological crises kept him from graduating until eight years later. Near the end of his life, he recalled dropping out of college at least three times—to work in a poultry hatchery, to recuperate from tuberculosis in Colorado and the Mojave Desert (1928–1929), and to drift, riding the rails in the West (1930–1931). His father’s death in 1928 brought Eiseley to the brink of mental collapse. During this period, however, he worked on his first archaeological dig, published his first poetry, and cultivated a deep affinity for animals and landscape. In the same year he finished college (1933) Eiseley went to the University of Pennsylvania for graduate work in anthropology. He earned his Ph.D. in 1937, completing a dissertation titled “Three Indices of Quaternary Time and Their Bearing upon Pre-History: A Critique.” With this work an intensely private man began an unexpected career as a prominent public intellectual and literary naturalist....